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The white mans burden imperialism or imperialists

Imperialism We are living in a period in which the rhetoric of empire knows few bounds.

Kipling, the ‘White Man’s Burden,’ and U.S. Imperialism

What is significant, however, is that the question was asked at all. It is not clear if President George W. Bush is a reader of poetry or of Kipling. Immediately after the U. The United States wanted Aguinaldo to lead a renewed revolt against Spain to prosecute the war before U.

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The Filipinos were so successful that in less than two months they had all but defeated the Spanish on the main island of Luzon, bottling up the remaining Spanish troops in the capital city of Manila, while almost all of the archipelago fell into Filipino hands.

The Spanish army surrendered Manila to U.

The White Man

In an agreement between the United States and Spain, Filipino forces were kept out of the city and were allowed no part in the surrender. This was the final battle of the war. In October 1898 the McKinley administration publicly revealed for the first time that it intended to annex the entire Philippines. Nevertheless, the administration went ahead and concluded the Treaty of Paris in December, in which Spain agreed to cede the Philippines to the new imperial power, along with its other possessions seized by the United States in the war.

On February 4, 1899, U. When they encountered Filipino soldiers the U. It stipulated that the United States would pay Spain twenty million dollars for the territories that it gained through the war. But this did little to disguise the fact that the Spanish- American War was an outright seizure of an overseas colonial empire by the United States, in response to the perceived need of U.

In 1900 the United States sent troops from the Philippines to China to join with the other imperial powers in putting down the Boxer Rebellion. Kipling urged the United States, with special reference to the Philippines, to join Britain in the pursuit of the racial responsibilities of empire: Your new-caught sullen peoples, —Half the white mans burden imperialism or imperialists and half child. Beveridge of Indiana declared: He has made us adept in government that we may administer government among savage and senile peoples.

At least a quarter of a million Filipinos, most of them civilians, were killed along with 4,200 U. They therefore quickly switched to guerrilla warfare. Yet they found themselves facing interminable small attacks and ambushes by Filipinos, who often carried long knives known as bolos.

These guerrilla attacks resulted in combat deaths of U. As in all prolonged guerrilla wars, the strength of the Filipino resistance was due to the fact that it had the support of the Filipino population in general. I did not like to believe that the whole population of Luzon—the native population that is—was opposed to us and our offers of aid and good government. But after having come this far, after having occupied several towns and cities in succession… I have been reluctantly compelled to believe that the Filipino masses are loyal to Aguinaldo and the government which he heads.

Faced with a guerrilla struggle supported by the vast majority of the population, the U. General Frederick Funston did not hesitate to announce that he had personally strung up a group of thirty-five Filipino civilians suspected of supporting the Filipino revolutionaries.

  • In 1906 what came to be known as the Moro Massacre was carried out by U;
  • Lines such as "Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child" justified the narrative of America's belief in Manifest Destiny and its desire to become an imperial power;
  • As Hobsbawm tells us:

During the Philippine War the United States reversed the normal casualty statistics of war—usually many more are wounded than killed. According to official statistics discussed in Congressional hearings on the war U. This fit with frequent reports by U. The war continued after the capture of Aguinaldo in March 1901 but was declared officially over by President Theodore Roosevelt on July 4, 1902—in an attempt to quell criticism of U.

In the southern Philippines the U. In 1906 what came to be known as the Moro Massacre was carried out by U. All of the Filipinos were killed while the U. Mark Twain responded to early reports which indicated that those massacred totaled six hundred rather than nine hundred men, women and children as later determined with bitter satire: The enemy numbered six hundred—including women and children—and we abolished them utterly, leaving not even a baby alive to cry for its dead mother.

This is incomparably the greatest victory that was ever achieved by the Christian soldiers of the United States. I want especially to have it framed and put upon the walls of my recitation room to impress upon the students what wars and especially Wars of Conquest really mean.

  • The White Man's Burden still exists;
  • Interpretation[ edit ] The white man's burden as advertising in the 1890s;
  • Kipling was a friend of Teddy;;;
  • This is incomparably the greatest victory that was ever achieved by the Christian soldiers of the United States.

At the same time they did not fail to reach out and acknowledge the hatred that the colonized had for the colonizer. These were classic imperialist wars and they generated anti-imperialist movements and radical critiques in response. It was the Boer War that gave rise to John A. If one were to doubt for a moment that the current expansion of U.

  • While many Americans at the time, including Mark Twain, were opposed to colonization on the basis that it dehumanized and debased conquered people, Kiping's poem justified colonization based on the idea that Americans had a duty to colonize inferior people to bring about their moral uplift;
  • As in all prolonged guerrilla wars, the strength of the Filipino resistance was due to the fact that it had the support of the Filipino population in general;
  • As a man who had worked shoulder to shoulder with those upholding the Raj for seven years in India, Kipling was entitled to speak with authority of the costs involved - the dangers of sickness and the risk of death by violence - in undertaking such a task.

The Iraq operation most resembles the conquest of the The white mans burden imperialism or imperialists between 1898 and 1902. Both were wars of conquest, both were urged by an ideological elite on a divided country and both cost much more than anyone had bargained for. Just as in Iraq, winning the war was the easy part…. More than 120,000 American troops were sent to the Philippines to put down the guerrilla resistance, and 4,000 never came home. It remains to be seen whether Iraq will cost thousands of American lives—and whether the American public will accept such a heavy toll as the price of success in Iraq New York Times Magazine, September 7, 2003.

Many Cubans, Haitians, Dominicans, and others may secretly have welcomed U. That task, he implied, remained to be accomplished. Award for the best nonfiction book pertaining to Marine Corps history.

Even before the war in Iraq, Ignatieff remarked: This gave it a bad reputation. The Philippine-American War is now being rediscovered as the closest approximation in U. Further, the United States has taken advantage of the September 11, 2001 attacks to intervene militarily not just in the Middle East but also around the globe—including the Philippines where it has deployed thousands of troops to aid the Philippine army in fighting Moro insurgents in the southern islands.

The reality is nevertheless that the United States has—whether it admits it or not— taken up some kind of global burden, just as Kipling urged. It considers itself responsible not just for waging a war against terrorism and rogue states, but also for spreading the benefits of capitalism and democracy overseas.

And just like the British Empire before it, the American Empire unfailingly acts in the name of liberty, even when its own self-interest is manifestly uppermost. Boot—hardly a marginal figure since affiliated with the influential Council on Foreign Relations—is a good example. Far-called, our navies melt away; —On dune and headland sinks the fire; The white mans burden imperialism or imperialists, all our pomp of yesterday —Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!

Judge of Nations, spare us yet, Lest we forget—lest we forget! The United States is now leading the way into a new phase of imperialism. This will likely speed up the long-run decline of the American Empire, rather than the reverse. Francia, Vestiges of War: Schirmer, Republic or Empire: Yale University Press, 1990 ; and Daniel B. South End Press, 1987. Definitive Edition New York: Syracuse University Press, 1992p.

For information on the Moro massacre and the W. Du Bois quote see www. As Hobsbawm tells us: Vintage, 1987p.