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The statistics of deaths caused by tobacco use in cigarettes

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Tobacco-Related Mortality

Noncommunicable diseases have become a public heath problem in India concomitant with economic development, leading to increases in tobacco consumption, obesity, and changes in diet and lifestyle. Although observation suggests that tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for deaths due to circulatory, pulmonary, and malignant diseases, such studies are not available from most populations in developing countries.

For the period 1999—2001, we studied the randomly selected records of death of 2222 1385 men and 837 women decedents, aged 25—64 years, out of 3034 death records overall from the records at Municipal Corporation, Moradabad. Social classes and tobacco intakes were assessed by a questionnaire.

Tobacco intakes were significantly more common among decedents dying due to circulatory, malignant, and pulmonary diseases, compared with other causes men 61. Pulmonary causes included chronic bronchitis and asthma.

Cancers of the lung 1.

  • More than 5 in 10 55;
  • It is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of people to the highest standard of health, provides legal dimensions for international health cooperation and sets high standards for compliance;
  • Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia are spending less than 20 percent of what the CDC recommends.

This study shows that tobacco consumption appears to be a major contributor to deaths due to circulatory diseases and malignant diseases in India. Social class status had little impact on tobacco consumption in male decedents.

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Rapid changes in diet and lifestyle, increases in tobacco consumption, and possibly aging of the population, appear to be strongly associated with mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and cancer in this middle-income country. In developed countries Gupta et al 19801984 ; Berger and Wynder 1994 ; Peto et al 1994 ; Cavelaars et al 1997 ; Singh et al 1997a1997b ; Foley et al 2002 ; Kesteloot 2003 ; Puska et al 2003 ; Schiaffino et al 2003 ; Schoenborn et al 2003it is also known that lower social or educational classes have a higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, the statistics of deaths caused by tobacco use in cigarettes, and lower intakes of fruits and vegetables and less spare time spent on physical activity.

In one study CDC 2006 conducted between 1997—1998, data on cigarette smoking in adults in the United States showed that white men were smokers less frequently than black men and the reverse was found for white women compared with black women. In an Indian study, tobacco consumption was observed among 27. In rural populations, tobacco consumption is more common than in urban areas Singh et al 1997a1997b.

Circulatory, pulmonary, and malignant diseases have already become important as a cause of death in most developing economies of the world, and are likely to assume greater importance in the near future Yusuf et al 2001a2001b ; Sachs 2004 ; WHO 2005. Mortality due to CVD is declining in developed countries with only small changes in cancer deaths and in deaths among the elderly and women CDC 2006 ; Gerber et al 2006.

In the present study, we report the prevalence of tobacco consumption among decedents due to circulatory and chronic lung diseases and cancers, based on verbal autopsy questionnaire, in an urban population of north India. Subjects and methods The subjects and methods for the present study have been described in detail elsewhere Singh et al 20022005.

In brief, the city of Moradabad is an urban area with a population of 0. Causes of death recorded at the municipal board might not be correct as these are based on certificates issued by the attending doctors, without confirmation by autopsy.

We studied the records of 2842 randomly selected adult decedents, aged 25—64 years. Of 2222 decedents, 1385 were male and 837 were female. All the families of these 2222 victims were contacted individually to find out the causes of deaths by verbal autopsy questionnaire Singh et al 20022005.

Since autopsy is not possible in many developing countries due to religious considerations, WHO has suggested investigating causes of death by detailed questionnaires administered to spouses and concerned doctors.

The head of every family was personally called after communication with the help of the local accessible doctor in the healthcare region lane. Our team consisted of a scientist, a health worker, and a doctor, who were trained and briefed regarding the details of questionnaires before starting the survey.

Tobacco consumption in relation to causes of death in an urban population of north India

The case record forms were pretested by the concerned committee in roughly 30 to 60 families. We recorded the name, address, and if possible telephone numbers of the spouse, family doctor, and the doctor who treated the decedent at the time of death.

These clinical data were based on medical records of the decedent, death certificate issued by the doctor, interview of the participating doctor, and the family doctor, interview of the spouse and other family members, with the help of a consented questionnaire, to know the cause of death. The following questions were asked to each of above persons: What were the height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressures of the victim?

If such information was not given in the record. Please tell any other illness which the deceased had in the past? Please describe the most important symptoms at the onset of illness: Please describe the diagnosis of the illness made by the doctor. Was there any differences in the opinions of the doctors? The socioeconomic status of the family was classified based on attributes of housing condition, education, occupation, per capita income, and ownership of consumer durables like a car, television, etc, in the household Singh et al 1997d.

  • Although observation suggests that tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for deaths due to circulatory, pulmonary, and malignant diseases, such studies are not available from most populations in developing countries;
  • Noncommunicable diseases have become a public heath problem in India concomitant with economic development, leading to increases in tobacco consumption, obesity, and changes in diet and lifestyle.

Per capita income was calculated by dividing the total income of the family by the number of family members. The diagnosis of risk factors was based on available records, inquiry from the spouse, and concerned doctors, and the criteria of diagnosis were based on our earlier studies Singh et al 1997a1997b. Tobacco consumption was determined based on criteria Singh et al 1997c used in other studies.

Tobacco is consumed in various forms in India, such as cigarettes, beedi, the Indian pipe, in a raw or chewing form.

Background:

People may consume tobacco in more than one form. Indian criteria classify subjects on the basis of smoking of cigarettes and pipes and do not adequately consider tobacco chewing, which has been duly considered by us Singh et al 1997c. Statistical analysis We used the chi square test for the comparison of two groups. Results We assessed the data with the help of verbal autopsy questionnaire Singh et al 2005 as suggested by the World Health Organisation WHO for countries where autopsy can not be done due to religious considerations.

The mean age, sex, and body mass index were slightly higher among decedents than in the urban population reported in other studies from our town Singh et al 1997a1997b. Table 1 Clinical data and tobacco consumption among decedents studied, based on records and assessment by questionnaire Clinical data.