Term papers writing service


The positive and negative impact of cell phones on the loneliness of individuals

It was hypothesized that smartphone addiction would be negatively correlated with of interpersonal relationship and positively correlated with loneliness. Moreover, it was also hypothesized that smartphone addiction would be the negative predictor of interpersonal relationship and positive predictor of loneliness in university students. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that there would be the higher level of smartphone addiction in woman than men. Data was analyzed in SPSS. Results indicated that smartphone addiction was negatively correlated with interpersonal relationship and positively correlated with loneliness in university students.

Moreover, it was found that smartphone addiction was negative predictor of interpersonal relationship and also positive predictor of loneliness in university students. In addition, the finding showed that women have a higher level of smartphone addiction than men. The study has important implication in an education setting to integrate understanding the problem of smartphone addicted students and the effect on their performances, resolving their conflicts with teachers and peers.

Moreover, in counseling field to enhance their interpersonal relationship circle and for the motivation of academic performance. Smartphone Addiction, Interpersonal Relationship, Loneliness and Gender Difference Chapter I Introduction Now a day our personal life is highly dependent on the technology that people have developed. Technology has advanced with years and it has changed the way we purchase products, the way we livethe way we communicatethe way we travelthe way we learn and so many changes have been brought about by these continuous technological advancements.

When we talk about the mobile phone the type of mobile phones we had in 1995 are no longer on demand in this century, the demands of mobile phone users have changed greatly, Now people demand simplicity and more functionality, which has forced mobile phone manufactures to develop computer minded smart phones, which are so easy to use, but also they come with more functionality compared to the type of mobile phones we used to have in the past.

Recently, smartphone addiction has emerged as a significant problem among users Kwon et al. This could lead to addiction in the form of frequent checking or habitual checking Lee, 2015; Oulasvirta et al.

  • This study concludes that, at least in the present developmental level of communication technologies, intensive mobile phone use seems to be part of the same health-related lifestyle as health compromising behaviors;
  • Due to the identity and social network implications of smartphones, users get dependent of their smartphones;
  • Moreover, people indulge themselves into different applications of smartphone like Instagram, Facebook, and Google Play Store that does not only badly affect their academic performances but also their relationship with families, peers and relatives.

In addition, past research has found that lonely people and shy people are more likely to be addicted to different substances.

In addition, due to its small size and functions, this device is carried around most. Smartphones are carried everywhere: Therefore, smartphone devices are different from other mobile or technical devices, as they are extensions of the human being Mcluhan, 1964. As usage per device is different, it is important to choose one device. Applications are suitable in different contexts, like mobile internet, camera, telephone connection, agenda, among many more downloadable applications.

Life without a smartphone is for many people unthinkable; thus, people are getting in some way dependent on their smartphone Haverlag, 2013. Thus, the use of smartphones is intense because it is always accessible.

How do habits develop and become addictive?

Positives of cell phones

Habits are formed through repeated acts in certain circumstances Oulasvirta et al. Positive effects of habits line in that, due to the fast automatic behavior aspect, they enable multitasking and accomplishment of complex tasks. They can cause unintended behavior activated by internal or external cues interfering other acts. This is also called maladaptive habits, as people create excessive urges, for example, unintended smartphone checking.

It could interfere with daily life; however, due to regulations or social norms, people are able to limit these negative influences Rush, 2011. Checking habits are automatic actions whereby the smartphone is unlocked to check the start screen for new messages, notifications, alerts, and application icons; these habits can be triggered by external ringtone and internal cues emotional state, urge.

Checking for information can be rewarding, if someone has a new message or notification, the so-called new information reward.

My Essay Point

How persistent a habit is depends on the habit strength La Rose, Lin, Eastin, 2003. Habit strength is the degree of automaticity of a habit.

The strength of the habit is formed through operant conditioning Rush, 2011. Operant conditioning is the development of habits and addictions. When previous actions had desirable outcomes, those actions will likely reoccur. The frequency of these actions and the salience of the reward determine the strength of the habit and can form the basis of an addiction Rush, 2011. A habit that is often repeated has a stronger degree than the one that is less automatic and repeated. Strong habits are repeated more often and are easier provoked by cues La Rose, Lin, Eastin, 2003.

Social media, application, and game publishers create compulsion loops so that users spend more time and repeat their actions on their mobile applications or social platforms. To summarize, smartphone usage could form habits through different cues, repetitions, and stimulation of application publishers. Addiction is a term with a long history of reference to alcohol or drugs abuse arising from the addictive effect that those substances have on the human body and brain.

However, taking large amounts of drugs or alcohol for a long period are not the only types of addiction APA, 2001. People can develop addictions not only towards substances, but also to specific behavioral patterns APA, 2001.

Thus, when the positive reinforcement is strong, there is a short time between an action and a corresponding physiological response; as a result, that action becomes more addictive.

Drugs addictions are not behavioral addictions; rather, these but are termed substance dependence APA, 2001. Fails to control the behavior; 2. Continues to execute addictive behavior despite significant harmful consequences Isaac, 2008. Therefore, there is frequently an undesirable situation with certain habits that become problematic, such as playing games, visiting social media or forums Young, 1999.

Some characteristics, such as stress, loneliness, or isolation, could play a role as well Young, 1999. People often do not turn of their smartphones, do not go out without them, and use them for business, relaxation, and socializing.

This is particularly true of adolescents, as they spend much time with and on their smartphones; in addition, adolescents are more sensitive to rewards and cues than older people Haverlag, 2013. Carbonell, Oberst, and Beranuy 2013 collected the unique gratifications of smartphones that can cause positive reinforcement by its users, namely: Getting text messages, calls, or social media response creates a feeling of being valued or loved.

Smartphone function as a clock, camera, recorder, diary, agenda, radio, music player, navigation. Identity and status symbol: Smartphones do not only have functional properties, but also function as an identity symbol of its user. This is caused not only by the device, but also by the number of messages, notifications, and calls a person receives. Smartphones functions can create and maintain social networks.

  1. The Correlation research design was used to study. Thus, when the positive reinforcement is strong, there is a short time between an action and a corresponding physiological response; as a result, that action becomes more addictive.
  2. Survey data collected from 526 undergraduate students.
  3. For these groups assessed analysis were done through independent sample t- test.
  4. It is one of the effective tools of interaction among teenagers.
  5. Moreover, it was found that smartphone addiction was negative predictor of interpersonal relationship and also positive predictor of loneliness in university students.

Social networks that are different from those created by physical face-to-face social network are evolving through smartphones and are rapidly changing. Teenagers are particularly prone to creating and maintaining social networks with their smartphones.

Due to the identity and social network implications of smartphones, users get dependent of their smartphones. There are no boundaries any more. When face-to-face communication is not possible, communication through smartphones is then most applicable. In recent years, people stopped going outside without their smartphones. Due to the accessibility of other contacts afforded by smartphones, people feel more secure and in control. Without a smartphone, a feeling of fear can emerge due to disconnection.

Because smartphones are on and always at hand for many individuals, it is expected that others are also permanently connected and accessible. This leads to a feeling of concern when people do not react in time. Hereby, the use and bonding with the smartphone is being reinforced. Many applications are available on smartphones; thus, the device can function as an online mobile game console.

Apart from games, the online functions of a smartphone can offer shopping, browsing, and watching multimedia gratifications.

Smartphone features like calling, text messaging, communication applications, and social media make it possible to express or share feelings, experiences, and situations in text, videos, and pictures. In addition to theories that is related to smartphone addiction are following: This theory proposed by Baxter and Simon 1993.

This theory described that people rely on cell phones to communicate, share, include and validate. People experience internal tensions inconsistently, while being in a relationship.

  1. Data was analyzed in SPSS. But there was a negative relationship between smartphone addiction and interpersonal relationship with university students.
  2. The associations remained, although somewhat reduced, after including weekly spending money in the models.
  3. The sample was consisted of , 317 boys and 310 girls from various schools, college and university.
  4. After taking the permission officially from all authentic sources data collection was started, questionnaires were presented to those students who met the required criteria.
  5. The over all model was significant.

Over time the pressures will be recurring in nature and from this extreme tendencies, the relationship sustains. For instance, consider the point between harmony and separation. Communication patterns causing a constant state of instability acts as a contrary in sustaining a relationship.

UG theory founded by Elihu Katz in 1959. According to Katz 1959the outcomes of media usage depend on why and how they decided to use the media. Interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

This association may be based on inference, love, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal relationships are formed in the context of social, cultural and other influences. The context can and may and perhaps will vary from family or kinship relations, friendship, marriage, relations with associates, work, clubs, neighborhoods, and places of worship.

They may be regulated by law, custom, or mutual agreement, and are the basis of social groups and society as a whole. Human beings are innately social and are shaped by their experiences with others. There are multiple perspectives to understand this inherent motivation to interact with others Shahsavarani, et.

Such examples illustrate the extent to which the psycho-biological drive to belong is entrenched Sujatha, 2001. Another way to appreciate the importance of relationships is in terms of a reward framework.

This perspective suggests that individuals engage in relations that are rewarding in both tangible and intangible ways. This theory is based on the idea that relationships develop as a result of cost-benefit analysis. Individuals seek out rewards in interactions with others and are willing to pay a cost for said rewards. In the best-case scenario, rewards will exceed costs, producing a net gain. Relationships are also important for their ability to help individuals develop a sense of self.

Sidanius and Pratto 2001 define power is the ability to influence the behavior of other people. Expressions of dominance can communicate intention to assert or maintain dominance in a relationship.

Being submissive can be beneficial because it saves time, emotional stress, and may avoid hostile actions such as withholding of resources, cessation of cooperation, termination of the relationship, maintaining a grudge, or even physical violence.

Submission occurs in different degrees; for example, some employees may follow orders without question, whereas others might express disagreement but concede when pressed.