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The importance of the issue of violence against women

The Importance of the Violence Against Women Act

Mercy, PhD; Janet Saul, PhD; and Susan Hillis, PhD, While it is widely recognized that different types of violence are related to one another in important ways, we persist, the world over, in addressing violence as if this were not the case, as if each type of violence were its own particular problem.

There are those who try to break down the silos between different realms of violence, but these efforts are, by and large, the exceptions rather than the rule. Nowhere is this discrepancy between what we know and what we do more apparent than in relation to the prevention of violence against children and violence against women. Violence against children and violence against women are linked in numerous ways.

Exposure to violence as a child is a risk factor for involvement in intimate partner violence as an adult. Growing up in a violent home has important implications for child development and subsequent behavior as an adult.

The Importance of Integrating Efforts to Prevent Violence Against Women and Children

In particular, experiencing child maltreatment and witnessing partner abuse in the home as a child have consistently been demonstrated to be risk factors for becoming both a perpetrator and victim of sexual and intimate partner violence as an adult. In an assessment of reproductive health surveys in six countries in Latin America and the Caribbean it was found that the proportion of women ever married or in a union that reported physical or sexual violence by a partner was more than twice as high for women who had experienced sexual abuse in childhood as those who had not in all six countries.

  1. In the speech discourses, the reality of violence against women is manifested in different forms.
  2. In this gender perspective, men are required to behave masculinely and show aggressiveness, fearlessness and power, whereas women are expected to be soothing, unselfish and obedient. After that, we try to comfort [...
  3. Violence against women increased from 2012 to 2013 by 26.
  4. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1998;107. These experiences have damaging impacts on their mental and physical health as well as their likelihood of continuing to experience violence into adulthood.
  5. Findings from a National Survey, 2010. Standard operating procedures are in place.

It should come as no surprise that children in families in which intimate partner violence occurs are at greater risk of also experiencing maltreatment. Violence against women begins in childhood. The sexual and physical violence that plagues many women as adults is also very prevalent among female children, particularly adolescents. In violence against children surveys in Kenya, Swaziland and Tanzania a quarter to a third of females experienced sexual violence as a child, primarily at the hands of dating partners or men or boys from their neighborhoods.

These experiences have damaging impacts on their mental and physical health as well as their likelihood of continuing to experience violence into adulthood. Longitudinal studies have found that the development of intimate partner violence perpetration is linked to individual, family, and peer factors that often emerge or are experienced in childhood.

In a survey of violence against children conducted in Kenya in 2010 it was found that over half of 13 to 17 year old males and females believed it was acceptable for a husband to beat his wife under one the importance of the issue of violence against women more circumstances. Children are exposed to these social norms from their earliest interactions with their parents, other key people in their social environments, as well as social and cultural institutions e.

The scientific evidence strongly indicates that violence against children, both girls and boys, and violence against women are inextricably related. Ultimately the prevention of each of these two interrelated aspects of violence hinges, in substantial ways, on the prevention of the other. The evidence compels us to consider how to better integrate our approaches to responding to these two issues.

There are several general strategies that should be considered. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children and youth is an example of an evidence-based intervention that is effective for addressing affective, behavioral, cognitive and interpersonal regulation difficulties in children who experience continuing trauma such as family or community violence and war.

Second, the identification of a child or adult female victim can be used to generate a multi-faceted response by systems of care. If a woman is receiving care and support for intimate partner violence, the service provider can inquire about her children and engage appropriate services for them.

Likewise, if a child is receiving services in response to violence victimization, their mother can be engaged, screened and provided with services when appropriate. Third, strategies for preventing violence against children and women can be delivered together, whenever possible.

Results from the first trial of a nurse home visitation program showed that, in visited households where the mother reported moderate to severe levels of intimate partner violence, the otherwise beneficial effect on reducing child maltreatment was not found. Programs that engage men and boys, as leaders and agents of change within their communities, are rapidly emerging as one potential avenue to addressing these norms.

A systematic qualitative review of risk and protective factors for sexual violence perpetration. A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence. Violence against women in Latin America and the Caribbean: A comparative analysis of population-based data from 12 countries. Pan American Health Organization, 2012. Implications for prevention and intervention. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 2003;6 3: The co-occurrence of child and intimate partner maltreatment in the family: Characteristics of the violent perpetrators.

Journal of Family Violence 2007;22: WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses.

Violence against women: a ‘global health problem of epidemic proportions’

World Health Organization, 2005. Sexual violence and its health consequences for female children in Swaziland: The Lancet 2009; 373 9679: Violence against Children in Tanzania: Findings from a National Survey 2009.

United Republic of Tanzania: Violence against Children in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey, 2010. Mercy JA, Saul J. Creating a healthier future through early interventions for children.

  1. Such conduct is justified by the lack of professional formation. In a survey of violence against children conducted in Kenya in 2010 it was found that over half of 13 to 17 year old males and females believed it was acceptable for a husband to beat his wife under one or more circumstances.
  2. Pan American Health Organization, 2012.
  3. Not only is a victim's medical and mental health impacted, her reproductive and economic freedom are impacted as well.
  4. Hence, during intervention with women, there is a predominance of technical-instrumental care relationship.
  5. The Organization will partner with ministries of health, non-governmental organizations NGOs and sister United Nations agencies to disseminate the guidelines, and support their adaptation and use. In a comparative study with Brazilian regions, the city of Sao Paulo and the countryside of Pernambuco, using the same questionnaire, applied to 15-49 year-old women, there was a variation in the violence rates found.

Journal of the American Medical Association 2009; 301 21: Developmental antecedents of partner abuse: Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1998;107: Parent and peer predictors of physical aggression and conflict management in romantic relationships in early adulthood.

Journal of Family Violence, 19, 252-262. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for youth who experience continuous traumatic experience. Journal of Peace Psychology 2013;19 2: Preventing child abuse and neglect with a program of nurse home visitation: Development of a nurse home visitation intervention for intimate partner violence.

Engaging men and boys in changing gender-based inequity in health: Evidence from programme interventions.

Violence against women

World Health Organization, 2007.