Term papers writing service


The importance of equality and order for hammurabi

An Eye for an Eye "Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, on whom Shamash has conferred the law, am I.

4c. Hammurabi's Code: An Eye for an Eye

The code was found by French archaeologists in 1901 while excavating the ancient city of Susa, which is in modern-day Iran. Hammurabi is the best known and most celebrated of all Mesopotamian kings. He ruled the Babylonian Empire from 1792-50 B. Although he was concerned with keeping order in his kingdom, this was not his only reason for compiling the list of laws. When he began ruling the city-state of Babylon, he had control of no more than 50 square miles of territory.

  • They date to about 2400 B;
  • A Need for Justice Hammurabi keenly understood that, to achieve this goal, he needed one universal set of laws for all of the diverse peoples he conquered;
  • If he has destroyed the eye of a gentleman's slave;;;
  • If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss;
  • If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.

As he conquered other city-states and his empire grew, he saw the need to unify the various groups he controlled. A Need for Justice Hammurabi keenly understood that, to achieve this goal, he needed one universal set of laws for all of the diverse peoples he conquered. Therefore, he sent legal experts throughout his kingdom to gather existing laws.

These laws were reviewed and some were changed or eliminated before compiling his final list of 282 laws. Despite what many people believe, this code of laws was not the first. They date to about 2400 B. The prologue or introduction to the list of laws is very enlightening.

  • The prologue or introduction to the list of laws is very enlightening;
  • Hammurabi's Code may not seem very different from more recent laws and precedents that guide the processes of a trial;
  • Although he was concerned with keeping order in his kingdom, this was not his only reason for compiling the list of laws;
  • If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off;
  • Hammurabi's own words illustrate this point;
  • A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

Here, Hammurabi states that he wants "to make justice visible in the land, to destroy the wicked person and the evil-doer, that the strong might not injure the weak. The phrase "an eye for an eye" represents what many people view as a harsh sense of justice based on revenge.

But, the entire code is much more complex than that one phrase. The code distinguishes among punishments for wealthy or noble persons, lower-class persons or commoners, and slaves. Some laws were quite brutal, others rather progressive.

Members of the upper-class often received harsher punishments than commoners, and women had quite a few important rights.

Most of the nearly 300 laws written on the pillar pertain to property rights of landowners, slavemasters, merchants, and builders. Here are some of the more unusual laws that seem very foreign to a modern society: If any one finds runaway male or female slaves in the open country and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver.

The importance of equality and order for hammurabi

If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. If a tavern-keeper feminine does not accept corn according to gross weight in payment of a drink, but takes money, and the price of the drink is less than that of the corn, she shall be convicted and thrown into the water. If a son of a paramour or a prostitute say to his adoptive father or mother: If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off.

If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out. If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss. If a barber, without the knowledge of his master, cut the sign of a slave on a slave not to be sold, the hands of this barber shall be cut off.

If you like our content, please share it on social media!

If a slave says to his master: Hammurabi's own words illustrate this point: If he has destroyed the eye of a commoner. If he has destroyed the eye of a gentleman's slave. The code deals with many topics of concern other than assault.

  • Some laws were quite brutal, others rather progressive;
  • The importance of equality and order for hammurabi Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church.

It outlines rules for witnesses and those making accusations of crimes. For example, "If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death.

In some cases, these rules are quite reasonable and fair: Payment amounts for the work of doctors and other professionals are outlined.

Although the pay for doctors was good, they suffered severe punishments for fatal errors. The code states that "if a physician make a large incision with the operating knife, and kill him.

The Code covers all types of issues related to farming and herding animals, and it also lays out rules on the ownership and sale of slaves. Go Jump in a River! Hammurabi's Code may not seem very different from more recent laws and precedents that guide the processes of a trial. But, there are a few major differences between ancient Babylonians and today's laws. Hammurabi's Code required accusers to bring the accused into court by themselves.

A number of the laws refer to jumping in the Euphrates River as a method of demonstrating one's guilt or innocence. If the accused returned to shore safely, they were deemed innocent; if they drowned, they were guilty.

This practice follows the Babylonians's belief that their fates were controlled by their gods. From the code, it is evident that the Babylonians did not believe all people were equal. The code treated slaves, commoners, and nobles differently. Women had a number of rights, including the ability to buy and sell property and to obtain a divorce. The Babylonians understood the need for honesty by all parties in a trial and for court officers to be free of corruption so that the justice system could function effectively.

Hammarabi's Code serves as a window into the prevailing values of ancient Babylon.