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The geography and conflicts originating from the great lakes region

Introduction

Currently, political instability and conflicts in the Great Lakes Region have a considerable regional dimension and thus require a concerted effort in order to promote sustainable peace and development. The organisation consists of twelve members now after the division of Sudan: The region is derived firstly, from a consequence of a complex and interconnected set of interacting and accumulated problems.

Secondly from bad governance, lack of democracy, monopolisation of political power by an individual or ethnic group, widespread corruption, nepotism, violation of basic human right and ever Deeping poverty. This situation is found constituted a treat not only to African peace, but to international peace as well. When analysing carefully the situation in the Great Lakes Region, we can see that most leaders are getting to power by force, by coup or by a controversy election as the 28 November 2011 election of Democratic Republic of Congo which was criticised by all international and local observers.

Conflict in the Great Lakes Region

Many people believed that the restoration of democracy and justice in the Great Lakes Region will be convoyed only by a peaceful transfer of political power whenever elections are taking place, others believed that the time of peaceful, free and fair elections in great lakes region remain a concerns as election means, full respect of the fundamental law which is the constitution as well as respect of the mandate president of republic.

But the political power in the Great Lakes region can change the constitution at any time to justify the injustice. Can African dream of seeing a transfer of political power in Great lakes region done with a bottle of Champaign?

  1. Often, these issues underlie actual or perceived inequalities and grievances between identity groups, which can lead to, among other outcomes, the violent expression of these grievances. These actions attracted the involvement and interest of other governments in the region Uganda, Burundi, DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Chad and Sudan who supported sides of the conflict.
  2. If you want peace, prepare for peace.
  3. Both parties in conflict could recruit combatants from their ethnic groups in Rwanda, Burundi and the DRC, making the conflict significantly more regional.
  4. The first type of conflict is when two or more states engage in an open conflict over the exploitation of natural resources that are present along common borders. African Centre for Technology Studies.

Difficult question to answer that question due to the fact that many leaders in the Great Lakes Region came to power trough military coup, fraudulent election or arm conflict and guerrilla remain a big challenge, as we see that for the past 56 years they was been twenty two military coup as an average of tree military coup in every seven years in the great lakes Region.

The great lakes region is in danger if democracy, freedom, peace and justice are not subsequently restored hence. Burundi, Uganda, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo must implement the principle of democracy in order to restore peace and democracy in the Region with the implication of the African Union. The African Union Constitutive Act was the first document of the new African Union era to declare that the African Union shall promote democratic principles institutions.

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Article 3 and 4 of the constitutive Act codify the promotion of democratic principles and institution, popular participation and good governance. Article 30 stipulates that Government which shall come to power trough unconstitutional means shall not be allowed to participate in the activities of the African Union.

  • Nations and Nationalism, 3 4 , pp;
  • In Burundi, Rwanda, the DRC, Congo and Uganda, the constitution that was changed — or is in the process of being changed — has a two-term presidential limit;
  • The name, "Great Lakes Region" was derived from the fresh water lakes and river basins within the Central and Eastern part of Africa;
  • For example, the genocide in Rwanda increased cross-border ethnic affiliations between it, the DRC and regional ethnic-based rebel groups;
  • Mouvements et Enjeux Sociaux, 7, pp.

The Analysis of the constitutive Act, let people understand that every president who will change the constitution of his country in order to remain in power, should be consider as unconstitutional president and therefore African Union members states have right not to collaborate with that president who violate the constitution.

The Durban declaration on the principles governing democratic election in Africa endorsed at the 38th ordinary session of the organisation of African Union Assembly, is the foundation on which the African Union has sought to drive the development of democratic election process across the continent. Great lakes Region, Great problems in the Region, we will start to see where the history takes us.

Between 2015 and 2016, four presidents in the Region have no constitutional right to be elected: Joseph Kabila of DRC cannot be present for election in 2016, Pierre Kurunzinza cannot be presented for election in 2015 in Burundi for the third time, Jakaya Kikwete who already declare that he is not going to violate the constitution, cannot be presented for election in Tanzania for the third time, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni cannot be presented for election in Uganda for the fourth time.

Challenges of Regional Peacebuilding: A Case of the Great Lakes Region

South Africa who is presiding currently the African Union Commission should enforce the principles of democracy to discourage leaders that intend to change constitutions, and want to remain in power trough fraudulent elections. If you want peace, prepare for peace. It is time that the African Union must have a parliament which must prepare policies to enforce peace and make sure that leaders do not change frequently constitutions to remain illegally in power.