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The features of breast cancer and the importance of this issue

Breast cancer overview Cancer occurs when changes called mutations take place in genes that regulate cell growth. The mutations let the cells divide and multiply in an uncontrolled, chaotic way. The cells keep multiplying, producing copies that get progressively more abnormal.

In most cases, the cell copies eventually form a tumor. Breast cancer is cancer that develops in breast cells. Typically, the cancer forms in either the lobules or the ducts of the breast.

Lobules are the glands that produce milk, and ducts are the pathways that bring the milk from the glands to the nipple. Cancer can also occur in the fatty tissue or the fibrous connective tissue within your breast. The uncontrolled cancer cells often invade other healthy breast tissue and can travel to the lymph nodes under the arms.

The lymph nodes are a primary pathway that helps the cancer cells move to other parts of the body. See pictures and learn more about the structure of the breast. How common is breast cancer? And according to statistics from the American Cancer Society ACSnearly 232,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2015.

Invasive breast cancer is cancer that has spread from the ducts or glands to other parts of the breast. More than 40,000 women were expected to die from the disease. Breast cancer can also be diagnosed in men.

  1. In this procedure, a surgeon removes an entire breast. Therefore, we believe that similar results will be obtained when our methods are applied to histological analyses.
  2. These receptors are cells that bind, or attach, to the hormone estrogen.
  3. Women who took or are taking postmenopausal estrogen and progesterone medications to reduce their signs of menopause symptoms have a higher risk of breast cancer.
  4. This surgery removes some of the lymph nodes that receive drainage from the tumor. This may avoid axillary surgery and help identify patients, even preoperatively, who do not need adjunctive chemotherapy.
  5. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a drug treatment used to destroy cancer cells.

The ACS also estimated that in 2015, more than 2,000 men would be diagnosed, and more than 400 men would die from the disease. Find out more about breast cancer numbers around the world. Types of breast cancer There are several types of breast cancer, which are broken into two main categories: While invasive cancer has spread from the breast ducts or glands to other parts of the breast, noninvasive cancer has not spread from the original tissue. These two categories are used to describe the most common types of breast cancer, which include: Ductal carcinoma in situ.

Ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS is a noninvasive condition. With DCIS, the cells that line the ducts in your breast change and look cancerous. Lobular carcinoma in situ. Lobular carcinoma in situ LCIS is cancer that grows in the milk-producing glands of your breast.

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Invasive ductal carcinoma IDC is the most common type of breast cancer. Once the breast cancer has spread to the tissue outside your milk ducts, it can begin to spread to other nearby organs and tissue.

If breast cancer is diagnosed as ILC, it has already spread to nearby tissue and organs. Other, less common types of breast cancer include: Paget disease of the nipple. This very rare type of breast cancer grows in the connective tissue of the breast. This is cancer that grows on the blood vessels or lymph vessels in the breast. The type of cancer you have determines your treatment options, as well as your prognosis likely long-term outcome.

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Learn more about types of breast cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer IBC is a rare but aggressive type of breast cancer. IBC makes up only between 1 and 5 percent of all breast cancer cases. Instead of creating a tumor, IBC causes your breast to swell, look red, and feel very warm. A cancerous breast may appear pitted and thick, like an orange peel.

IBC can be very aggressive and progress quickly. Find out more about IBC and the symptoms it can cause. Triple-negative breast cancer Triple-negative breast cancer is another rare disease type, affecting only about 10 to 20 percent of people with breast cancer.

To be diagnosed as triple-negative breast cancer, a tumor must have all three of the following characteristics: It lacks estrogen receptors. These receptors are cells that bind, or attach, to the hormone estrogen. If a tumor has estrogen receptors, it needs estrogen to grow.

It lacks progesterone receptors. These receptors are cells that bind to the hormone progesterone. If a tumor has progesterone receptors, it needs progesterone to grow. HER2 is a protein that fuels breast cancer growth. This type of breast cancer has a tendency to grow and spread more quickly than other types of breast cancer.

Risk factors for breast cancer There are several risk factors that increase your chances of getting breast cancer. Other risk factors, such as smoking, you can change. Risk factors for breast cancer include: Your risk for developing breast cancer increases as you age. Most invasive breast cancers are found in women over age 55. Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol raises your risk.

  1. As mentioned before, addition of mammographic density to the Gail model improves risk prediction.
  2. We are addressing that issue. The hope is that the treatment will shrink the tumor, and then the surgery will not need to be as invasive.
  3. Lobular carcinoma in situ LCIS is cancer that grows in the milk-producing glands of your breast.
  4. In order to stage a breast cancer, doctors need to know. Moreover, histological grade and type are somewhat intermingled 21 , and different typing criteria can create significant differences between histological groupings 22.

Having dense breast tissue. Dense breast tissue makes mammograms hard to read. It also increases your risk of breast cancer. Women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Other gene mutations may also affect your risk. If you had your first period before age 12, you have an increased risk for breast cancer. Giving birth at an older age. Women who took or are taking postmenopausal estrogen and progesterone medications to reduce their signs of menopause symptoms have a higher risk of breast cancer.

If a close female relative has had breast cancer, you have an increased risk for developing it. This includes your mother, grandmother, sister, or daughter. In fact, the majority of women who develop it have no family history of the disease. Women who do not start menopause until after age 55 are more likely to develop breast cancer. Women who never became pregnant or never carried a pregnancy to full-term are more likely to develop breast cancer.

If you have had breast cancer in one breast, you have an increased risk of developing breast cancer in your other breast or in a different area of the previously affected breast. Breast cancer symptoms In its early stages, breast cancer may not cause any symptoms. In many cases, a tumor may be too small to be felt, but an abnormality can still be seen on a mammogram. If a tumor can be felt, the first sign is usually a new lump in the breast that was not there before.

However, not all lumps are cancer. Each type of breast cancer can cause a variety of symptoms. Many of these symptoms are similar, but some can be different. Symptoms for the most common breast cancers include: For instance, pain in your breast or a breast lump can be caused by a breast cyst.

Still, if you find a lump in your breast or have other symptoms, you should see your doctor for further examination and testing. Learn more about possible symptoms of breast cancer. Diagnosis of breast cancer To determine if your symptoms are caused by breast cancer or a benign breast condition, your doctor will do a thorough physical exam in addition to a breast exam.

Tests that can help diagnose breast cancer include: Perhaps the best way to see below the surface of your breast is with an imaging test called a mammogram. Many women get annual mammograms to check for breast cancer. If your doctor suspects you may have a tumor or suspicious spot, they will also request a mammogram. If an abnormal area is seen on your mammogram, your doctor may request additional tests.

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A breast ultrasound creates a picture of the tissues deep in your breast. The ultrasound uses sound waves to do this. An ultrasound can help your doctor distinguish between a solid mass, such as a tumor, and a benign cyst. Breast biopsy If your doctor suspects breast cancer, they may order both a mammogram and an ultrasound. During this test, your doctor will remove a tissue sample from the suspicious area to have it tested.

There are several types of breast biopsies. With some of these tests, your doctor uses a needle to take the tissue sample. With others, they make an incision in your breast and then remove the sample.

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Your doctor will send the tissue sample to a laboratory. If the sample tests positive for cancer, the lab can test it further to tell your doctor what type of cancer you have.

Learn more about breast biopsies, how to prepare for one, and what to expect.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer stages Breast cancer can be divided into stages based on how severe it is.