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The existence of slang language in canada

The existence of slang language in canada

Is it OK if we skip our regular night out this week? Communication Skills Book, 2nd ed. New Harbinger Publications, 199534—36.

This statement encapsulates many of the powerful features of language. Next, we will discuss how language expresses our identities, affects our credibility, serves as a means of control, and performs actions.

Language Expresses Our Identities In the opening to this chapter, I recounted how an undergraduate class in semantics solidified my love of language. But how might the label word nerd affect me differently if someone else placed it on me?

The power of language to express our identities varies depending on the origin of the label self-chosen or other imposed and the context. People are usually comfortable with the language they use to describe their own identities but may have issues with the labels others place on them.

There are many examples of people who have taken a label that was imposed on them, one that usually has negative connotations, and intentionally used it in ways that counter previous meanings. Some country music singers and comedians have reclaimed the label redneck, using it as an identity marker they are proud of rather than a pejorative term.

Even though some people embrace reclaimed words, they still carry their negative connotations and are not openly accepted by everyone. Language Affects Our Credibility One of the goals of this chapter is to help you be more competent with your verbal communication.

People make assumptions about your credibility based on how you speak and what you say. But you still have to support your ideas and explain the conclusions you make to be seen as competent. You have to use language clearly and be accountable for the existence of slang language in canada you say in order to be seen as trustworthy. Politicians know that the way they speak affects their credibility, but they also know that using words that are too scientific or academic can lead people to perceive them as eggheads, which would hurt their credibility.

Politicians and many others in leadership positions need to be able to use language to put people at ease, relate to others, and still appear confident and competent. Language Is a Means of Control Control is a word that has negative connotations, but our use of it here can be positive, neutral, or negative.

Verbal communication can be used to reward and punish. We can offer verbal communication in the form of positive reinforcement to praise someone. We can withhold verbal communication or use it in a critical, aggressive, or hurtful way as a form of negative reinforcement.

Directives are utterances that try to get another person to do something. They can range from a rather polite ask or request to a more forceful command or insist. Context informs when and how we express directives and how people respond to them. Promises are often paired with directives in order to persuade people to comply, and those promises, whether implied or stated, should be kept in order to be an ethical communicator.

Rather than verbal communication being directed at one person as a means of control, the way we talk creates overall climates of communication that may control many.

Steakhouse Slang 101: The Secret Language of Carnivores

Verbal communication characterized by empathy, understanding, respect, and honesty creates open climates that lead to more collaboration and more information exchange. Verbal communication that is controlling, deceitful, and vague creates a closed climate in which people are less willing to communicate and less trusting Brown, 2006.

Language Is Performative Some language is actually more like an action than a packet of information. Such utterances are called commissivesas they mean a speaker is committed to a certain course of action Crystal, 2005.

Of course, promises can be broken, and there can be consequences, but other verbal communication is granted official power that can guarantee action.

The two simple words I do can mean that a person has agreed to an oath before taking a witness stand or assuming the presidency. These two words, if said in the right context and in front of the right person, such as a judge or a reverend, bring with them obligations that cannot be undone without additional steps and potential negative repercussions. Performative language can also be a means of control, especially in legal contexts.

In some cases, the language that makes our laws is intentionally vague. In courts all over the nation, the written language intersects with spoken language as lawyers advocate for particular interpretations of the written law.

The utterances of judges and juries set precedents for reasonable interpretations that will then help decide future cases. Imagine how powerful the words We the jury find the defendant… seem to the defendant awaiting his or her verdict. The sentences handed down by judges following a verdict are also performative because those words impose fines, penalties, or even death.

Some language is deemed so powerful that it is regulated. Hate speech, which we will learn more about later, and slander, libel, and defamation are considered powerful enough to actually do damage to a person and have therefore been criminalized. Language Is Fun Word games have long been popular. Writers, poets, and comedians have built careers on their ability to have fun with language and in turn share that fun with others.

The fun and frivolity of language becomes clear as teachers get half-hearted laughs from students when they make puns, Jay Leno has a whole bit where he shows the hilarious mistakes people unintentionally make when they employ language, and people vie to construct the longest palindromic the existence of slang language in canada a sentence that as the same letters backward and forward. The productivity and limitlessness of language we discussed earlier the existence of slang language in canada some people to spend an inordinate amount of time discovering things about words.

Two examples that I have found fascinating are palindromes and contranyms. Palindromes, as noted, are words that read the same from left to right and from right to left. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diet on cod. These are just two examples of humorous and contradictory features of the English language—the book Crazy English by Richard Lederer explores dozens more.

A fun aspect of language enjoyed by more people than a small community of word enthusiasts is humor. Humor is a complicated social phenomenon that is largely based on the relationship between language and meaning. Humor functions to liven up conversations, break the ice, and increase group cohesion. We also use humor to test our compatibility with others when a deep conversation about certain topics like politics or religion would be awkward.

Using humor also draws attention to us, and the reactions that we get from others feeds into our self-concept. We also use humor to disclose information about ourselves that we might not feel comfortable revealing in a more straightforward way.

Humor can also be used to express sexual interest or to cope with bad news or bad situations. We first start to develop an understanding of humor as children when we realize that the words we use for objects are really arbitrary and can be manipulated.

This manipulation creates a distortion or incongruous moment in the reality that we had previously known. It is in the process of encoding and decoding that humor emerges. People use encoding to decide how and when to use humor, and people use decoding to make sense of humorous communication. Things can go wrong in both of those the existence of slang language in canada.

Comedians make a living by making language fun, but humor is contextual and not always easy to pull off. Language Is Dynamic As we already learned, language is essentially limitless. We may create a one-of-a-kind sentence combining words in new ways and never know it. Aside from the endless structural possibilities, words change meaning, and new words are created daily.

Neologisms Neologisms are newly coined or used words. Newly coined words are those that were just brought into linguistic existence. Newly used words make their way into languages in several ways, including borrowing and changing structure. In any case, borrowing is the primary means through which languages expand. Weekend is a popular English word based on the number of languages that have borrowed it.

We have borrowed many words, like chic from French, karaoke from Japanese, and caravan from Arabic. Structural changes also lead to new words. Compound words are neologisms that are created by joining two already known words. Keyboard, newspaper, and giftcard are all compound words that were formed when new things were created or conceived.

We also create new words by adding something, subtracting something, or blending them together. For example, we can add affixes, meaning a prefix or a suffix, to a word.

Ex-husband and kitchenette are relatively recent examples of such changes Crystal, 2005.

  • They can range from a rather polite ask or request to a more forceful command or insist;
  • Serious attempts to create a common language, sometimes referred to as a lingua franca or auxiliary language, began in the 1600s as world exploration brought increased trade and Latin was no longer effective as the language of international business;
  • Perhaps because of the confusion that this caused, the meaning of gay has contracted again, as the earlier meaning is now considered archaic, meaning it is no longer in common usage;
  • Need writing acronyms idioms and slang essay use our custom writing services or get access to database of 49 free essays samples about acronyms idioms and slang.

New words are also formed when clipping a word like examination, which creates a new word, exam, that retains the same meaning. And last, we can form new words by blending old ones together. Words like breakfast and lunch blend letters and meaning to form a new word—brunch. Existing words also change in their use and meaning. The digital age has given rise to some interesting changes in word usage. Before Facebook, the word friend had many meanings, but it was mostly used as a noun referring to a companion.

Google went from being a proper noun referring to the company to a more general verb that refers to searching for something on the Internet perhaps not even using the Google search engine. Meanings can expand or contract without changing from a noun to a verb. Perhaps because of the confusion that this caused, the meaning of gay has contracted again, as the earlier meaning is now considered archaic, meaning it is no longer in common usage.

  • The first few exchanges with a potential romantic partner or friend help us size the other person up and figure out if we want to pursue a relationship or not;
  • Language differences alone do not present insurmountable barriers;
  • Language is dynamic, meaning it is always changing through the addition of neologisms, new words or old words with new meaning, and the creation of slang.

The winning words are usually new words or words that recently took on new meaning. Although languages are dying out at an alarming rate, many languages are growing in terms of new words and expanded meanings, thanks largely to advances in technology, as can be seen in the example of cloud.

Slang Slang is a great example of the dynamic nature of language. Research has shown that only about 10 percent of the slang terms that emerge over a fifteen-year period survive. Inversion is a form of word play that produces slang words like sick, wicked, and bad that refer to the opposite of their typical meaning. Reduction creates slang words such as pic, sec, and later from picture, second, and see you later. New slang words often represent what is edgy, current, or simply relevant to the daily lives of a group of people.

Many creative examples of slang refer to illegal or socially taboo topics like sex, drinking, and drugs.

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It makes sense that developing an alternative way to identify drugs or talk about taboo topics could make life easier for the people who partake in such activities. Taking a moment to think about the amount of slang that refers to being intoxicated on drugs or alcohol or engaging in sexual activity should generate a lengthy list.

When I first started teaching this course in the early 2000s, Cal Poly Pomona had been compiling a list of the top twenty college slang words of the year for a few years.