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The effects of high fructose corn syrup on american society

High-fructose corn syrup and your health: But it skyrocketed when the food industry began mass producing high-fructose corn syrup HFCS in the 1970s. Some sugars appear in nature. Table sugar also known as sucrose, which is half fructose and half glucose is derived from sugar beets and cane. Fructose is common in fruits and honey.

The effects of high fructose syrup.

HFCS, on the other hand, is processed from corn kernels. HFCS is frequently found in soft drinks, breakfast cereals and sauces like ketchup. Though the level of fructose in most HFCS is advertised as no more than 55 percent, researchers at the University of Southern California have found samples of Pepsi and Coca-Cola containing 65 percent fructose and believe we may be consuming far more fructose than we realize.

But, as the two sections of research below emphasize, scientists disagree on the role that added sugars play not just in obesity, but in related health concerns as well, such as type 2 diabetes and liver disease.

Is the problem that Americans eat too much sugar generally? Or is HFCS more harmful than sugar? Like fructose, HFCS is metabolized in the liver — so is there a connection to liver disease? In response to these growing concerns, the corn industry has actively championed HFCS. Two of the authors had received funding from the Corn Refiners Association.

Popular beverages made with HFCS have a fructose-to-glucose ratio of approximately 60: Some pure fruit juices have twice as much fructose as glucose. These findings suggest that beverages made with HFCS and some juices have a sugar profile very different than sucrose, in which amounts of fructose and glucose are equivalent.

High-fructose corn syrup: everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask.

Current dietary analyses may underestimate actual fructose consumption. Lynn; Garcia-Fuentes, Pablo A. Working paper presented at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association annual meeting, 2017. In addition, negative news on HFCS the association of HFCS consumption and obesity has a negative effect on the growth of demand for soft drinks; however, per capita advertising on soft drinks has a positive effect on the growth of demand for soft drinks and more than offsets the effect of negative news.

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2017.

  1. Fructose-rich beverages and risk of gout in women, JAMA, 2010;304.
  2. Effects of sucrose, fructose and xylitol diets on glucose, lipid and urate metabolism, Acta Odontol Scand, 1976;34 6. Fructose-rich beverages and risk of gout in women, JAMA, 2010;304.
  3. Improved nutrient databases are needed to analyze food consumption in epidemiologic studies, as are more strongly designed experimental studies, including those on the mechanism of action and relationship between fructose dose and response. Here we sought to determine the effects of fructose versus glucose on brain, hormone, and appetitive responses to food cues and food-approach behavior.
  4. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008.
  5. Improved nutrient databases are needed to analyze food consumption in epidemiologic studies, as are more strongly designed experimental studies, including those on the mechanism of action and relationship between fructose dose and response. A randomized controlled trial, Metabolism, 2011;60.

The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Based on these preclinical study results, excess consumption of caloric sweetened beverage, particularly HFCS-sweetened beverages, should be limited.

  • An exploratory trial, Br J Nutr, 2011;106;
  • Fructose-rich beverages and risk of gout in women, JAMA, 2010;304;
  • Some wonder if there's a connection;
  • Based on these preclinical study results, excess consumption of caloric sweetened beverage, particularly HFCS-sweetened beverages, should be limited.

However, the fructose content of foods and beverages produced with HFCS is not disclosed and estimates of fructose content are based on the common assumption that the HFCS used contains 55 percent fructose. The objective of this study was to conduct an objective laboratory analysis of the sugar content and composition in popular sugar-sweetened beverages with a particular focus on fructose content.

The mean fructose content in the HFCS used was 59 percent range 47—65 percent and several major brands appear to be produced with HFCS that is 65 percent fructose. Finally, the sugar profile analyses detected forms of sugar that were inconsistent with what was listed on the food labels.

This analysis revealed significant deviations in sugar amount and composition relative to disclosures from producers. In addition, the tendency for use of HFCS that is higher in fructose could be contributing to higher fructose consumption than would otherwise be assumed.

The Role of Fructose, Sucrose, and High-fructose Corn Syrup in Diabetes

Global Public Health, 2012. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

High-fructose corn syrup and your health: Research roundup

Advances in Nutrition, 2013. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50 percent of the added sugars sugar and high-fructose corn syrup are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar.

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Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50 percent of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. The Journal of Physiology, 2017. However, it is unknown to what extent the type of sugar and the timing of exposure affect these outcomes.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2015. Here we sought to determine the effects of fructose versus glucose on brain, hormone, and appetitive responses to food cues and food-approach behavior. We show that the ingestion of fructose compared with glucose resulted in smaller increases in plasma insulin levels and greater brain responses to food cues in the visual cortex and left orbital frontal cortex.

  1. Mann JI, Evidence-based nutrition. The objective of this study was to conduct an objective laboratory analysis of the sugar content and composition in popular sugar-sweetened beverages with a particular focus on fructose content.
  2. At this time, there's insufficient evidence to say that high-fructose corn syrup is any less healthy than other types of sweeteners.
  3. Lynn; Garcia-Fuentes, Pablo A.

Ingestion of fructose versus glucose also led to greater hunger and desire for food and a greater willingness to give up long-term monetary rewards to obtain immediate high-calorie foods. These findings suggest that ingestion of fructose relative to glucose activates brain regions involved in attention and reward processing and may promote feeding behavior.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust to draw conclusions regarding effects of fructose, HFCS, or sucrose consumption on [nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose. Further research is required to examine appetite responses and to determine if these findings hold true for obese individuals, males, or longer periods. The Corn Refiners Association lists its frequently asked questions.