Term papers writing service


The causes and effects of the iraq conflict with the us and britain after 1945

Internally displaced [pdf] persons in Iraq: War has a powerful impact on those who have lived through one, bending every calculation, every thought, every action to the possible consequences of violence, deprivation, displacement and the other ravages of conflict. Oddly, war has become a distant occurrence for most of us in the industrialized West. But the people who live in war zones do, of course.

  • War has multiple effects in societies, positive and negative both;
  • Among the independent videos recently found is one from the "Winter Solider" conference from the American News Project, which has several from Iraq ; a treatment conveying the misery in Iraq in graphic imagery; an in-your-face rendition of U;
  • Given the population bulge in the 20-40 age range that would be affected by the current war, and the high numbers of young men killed who are not married, the estimate of widows translates into a very high mortality figure;
  • Major environmental problems include radioactive waste and radiation, oil leaks into the ground from bombarded plants and refineries, and pollution of soil and surface water.

Many millions of them are directly affected by the violence, now for more than a decade in Afghanistan in its latest war and for nearly nine years in Iraq in a war that followed 12 years of crippling sanctions and the short but intense Operation Desert Storm. The amount of public attention to Afghanistan and Iraq has declined steadily. We scarcely pay attention to what has happened to the native populations.

There are, perhaps, political and psychological reasons for this indifference—a turning away from the violence, a mission gone bad, falsehoods proffered by politicians, and many others.

But the indifference is unmistakable. The news media rarely describes the ruinous consequences of U. Few, if any, novels, films or other cultural expressions attempt to capture this suffering either.

But we forget at our peril. We should care about what happens to these people and their societies, not only for moral reasons, but also because forgetting has consequences. In fact, the numbers of fatalities are significantly higher and need to be studied for their implications.

  • Returned home when my tour was done To be told "You have cancer, son";
  • It is estimated that ten thousand villages, and their surrounding environments were destroyed;
  • Defence spending remains low;
  • Oddly, war has become a distant occurrence for most of us in the industrialized West;
  • Water sources were polluted by oil leaking from refineries.

In Iraq, some brave attempts to collect and analyze data about war-related mortality have at least given us a sense of the scale of mayhem. Several household surveys, the state-of-the-art method favored by epidemiologists, indicate a death toll reaching well into the hundreds of thousands. This includes all Iraqis, not just civilians, from direct violence and indirectly due to other factors — so-called excess deaths above the pre-war mortality rate.

Even the oft-cited tally of Iraq Body Count, a U. The lowest estimate of all the household surveys—a large, randomized sample conducted by the Ministry of Health in the spring of 2006—was 400,000 excess deaths in the 2003-2006 period, and there was still a lot of killing to come. By using data on widows, displaced persons up to 5 millionand the household surveys, I estimate the number of war-related dead to be at least 600,000 and possibly as much as one million.

This is not a number that most American politicians want to consider. Even as the U. There is very little on how the war has affected ordinary Iraqis. On Afghanistan, a far less violent conflict compared with Iraq, we have even less information. No household surveys have been conducted in Afghanistan. This was also true of the wars in Korea and Indochina, where estimates are largely guesswork. Overall, my best estimate of excess deaths in Afghanistan is around 100,000, but it is an inadequate estimate, as all are for this beleaguered country.

The Illusion of Validity The low numbers the news media and political leaders use to describe the outcome of these wars provide an unintentional symmetry to the conflicts: Now the wars wind down under another illusion of validity, which is that the civilians harmed by the wars are relatively few.

This is repeated so often, sometimes with reference to the Iraq Body Count or UN numbers, however hollow their credibility, that absurdly low estimates have become conventional wisdom.

Iran-Iraq War

It is so much so that even the liberal media, like National Public Radio or the New York Times, rarely explore the human costs of the war to Iraqis or Afghanis. These illusions, which feed indifference, have consequences. Others in the Muslim world particularly notice this callousness. It does not reflect well on America that many believe it to be a reckless bully unmindful of the havoc it wreaked, nor on Britain and Canada that they are camp followers of this recklessness.

The consequences for the United States are even more dramatic if considering the domestic political scene. By ignoring or forgetting the sheer destructiveness of the wars, Americans can continue on a path of seeing all foreign problems as fixable with military force.

Nowadays some domestic issues are regarded in the same light, with one result being the enormous homeland security apparatus. This has been the tragic tendency of U. The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, and as the historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. If there is no accountability for the human toll of war, the urge to deploy military assets will remain powerful. Widows in Iraq indicate scale of killing during U. The reporter states that 86,000 war widows are getting assistance from the Iraqi government, and that this "corresponds with conservative estimates of 103,000 to 113,000 Iraqi deaths in the war.

Consider the 86,000 figure supporting the 103-113,000 death toll. Half of the men in Iraq are not married. A very large number of men who are killed in the violence are young, far less than the average age of first marriage, which is 25 years old in Iraq.

Many children are killed or die unnecessarily due to poor health care conditions. Not all war widows are getting benefits, moreover. As this earlier and more complete report from Reuters details, "Iraqi women say registering for government pensions is a bureaucratic nightmare due to corrupt workers who demand money to complete the paperwork.

  1. The lowest estimate of all the household surveys—a large, randomized sample conducted by the Ministry of Health in the spring of 2006—was 400,000 excess deaths in the 2003-2006 period, and there was still a lot of killing to come.
  2. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
  3. There were several causes that led This rhetorical flourish outlived its use as a verbal sally in partisan skirmishes to have real and sinister effects. These are present in the sediments and may resurface in due time.
  4. Third, it included three modes of warfare absent in all previous wars since 1945.
  5. One estimate made in late 2006 put the total at more than 650,000 between the U. No one Enjoy our effects of war quotes collection.

One divorcee said she spent almost a year registering and when she was about to finish the process the pension office told her that her file had been lost. This one metric, then--numbers of war widows, estimated to be 2 million for all wars--indicates a minimum of 250,000 deaths due to the war, not 100,000. Given that we do not know how many women will claim benefits, the actual figure is likely two to three times that. The conditions in the settlements are extremely poor.

One reason for the trickle of returnees may be the Iraqi economy: Iraq is apparently undergoing a spell of increasing trafficking, or at least more noticeable violations of sexual and labor trafficking. A few weeks ago, the State Department issued its annual assessment of human trafficking worlwide, and Iraq was criticized for nearly non-existent enforcement of laws relating to both forced prostitution and involuntary labor servitude.

Journalists reports confirm that the problems are acute and possibly growing. August 29 Wikileaks releases damning--but misleading--documents on Iraq The nearly 400,000 documents released by the NGO muckraker, Wikileakson October 22, 2010, shows greater brutality toward civilians than the U. Government and the news media have heretofore acknowledged. Rampaging security contractors like Xe and abuse of detainees are particularly notable. But the documents give the impression that fatalties in the war "only" totaled 115,000 or so, counting civilians killed by direct violence.

The New York Times and the Associated Press both used this "baseline" and asserted it to be in keeping with several other estimates. Active surveillance using randomized household surveys is a superior method, and in the two most recent, credible surveys, between 400,000 and 650,000 Iraqi deaths were estimated, including all Iraqis and all causes.

See this peer-reviewed journal Conflict and Health on the different methods used in Iraq. BBC has delved into the different gauges of mortality more than any other major news media source.

The Impact of the First World War and Its Implications for Europe Today

The Guardian's " Data Blog " also has a map and additional insights. AlterNet's article on the controversy, by this site's editor, is here. While still somewhat speculative, the science-based methods suggest a total of between 700,000 and one million "excess deaths" to date resulting from the war.

Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung

The large estimate has recently been affirmed by one of the longest-serving Iraqi correspondents in the war, Sahar Issa of McClatchy New Service, an award-winning reporter, who described the IBC and Wikileaks-related estimates "laughable. Finding the dead among the ruins of Iraq Anthony Shadid's moving account of Iraqis searching for bodies of loved ones at the Baghdad morgue is a rare glimpse of the human cost of the war.

BBC asks, "How many have died in Iraq? How did this come to pass, and why? Noting haphazard reporting and loosely defined guidance for who should be compensated, among related mismanagement, CIVIC makes a strong case for creating uniform rules, implementing training for judge advocates and troops, and keeping better records.

And denial of claims can be routine: What the Wikileaks video says about the war The infamous video released in early April 2010 by the investigative Web site Wikileaks, showing a U.

Prelude to war

First is the sheer brutality of war, which few Americans ever see, and the apparently cavalier attitudes about killing. Second is the now well-documented fact that the Pentagon lied about the incident, and when Wikileaks released the video, attacked the editors of the Web site.

Third, consider how the mainstram news media rallied round the soldiers: The consequences for the Iraqi civilian victims received virtually no attention. Two of the soldiers on the ground who arrived at the scene subsequently apologized to the Iraqi people. A medical doctor told her that there are explosions every day that are never reproted in the press.

Study shows news media undercount violence The peer-reviewed journal Conflict and Health published November 2009 a study of the way the major news media are reporting casualty figures from the Iraq War, and note that "U. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war.

Coincidentally, their findings are reflected in a just-released journalistic treatment of mortality estimates from Iraq, among other issues, in Newspeak in the 21st Century, by David Edwards amd David Cromwell Pluto Pressof the watchdog group, Media Lens.

More than half believe the 2003 U. One-quarter of all Iraqis, and much higher numbers of Arabs, said they witnessed "unnecessary violence" against Iraqis by U. The data they did release and its analysis is here. Iraq War widows in distress, says N. Times, and number 740,000 "As the number of widows has swelled during six years of war, their presence on city streets begging for food or as potential recruits by insurgents has become a vexing symbol of the breakdown of Iraqi self-sufficiency," reports the New York Times Feb.

That is one of every eleven women from the age of 15 to 80. Given the population bulge in the 20-40 age range that would be affected by the current war, and the high numbers of young men killed who are not married, the estimate of widows translates into a very high mortality figure. For example, if half the widows are from the current war, and one-third of those who have died as a result of the war are not married--both conservative assumptions--then more than 555,000 have been killed as a result of the U.

That figure would not include the number of women and children who have died as a result of the war's privations or from direct violence. The Times has generally been quite cautious in its reporting on the war's human costs, so this article represents a breakthrough in its journalism. Two weeks later the Times reported on mental health studies done in Iraq among women, finding that 17 percent of those surveyed are suffering from serious, war-related mental illness.

Read the March 7 article.

  • Clark argues that Germany, like the other major powers, sleep-walked into the war;
  • Iraq was formed by merging three Ottoman provinces - dominated respectively by Shias, Sunnis and Kurds;
  • A costly war meant many Americans lived on food and fuel rations.

It is based in part on a large household survey conducted by the World Health Organization. Claims of "victory" and the human cost in the Bush years A new analysis of the total fatalities in the Iraq war during the presidency of George W. Bush demonstrates that the likely number is between 800,000 and 1.