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The acomplishments of arthur wesley as a military commander

See Article History Alternative Titles: He first rose to military prominence in Indiawon successes in the Peninsular War in Spain 1808—14and shared in the victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo 1815. Wellington twice reached the zenith of fame with a period of unexampled odium intervening.

After Waterloo he joined a repressive government, and later, as prime minister, he resisted pressure for constitutional reform. In old age he was idolized as an incomparable public servant—the Great Duke.

Reaction came after his death. Today there is widespread appreciation of his military genius and of his character as an honest and selfless politician, uncorrupted by vast prestige.

  • Arthur abandoned heavy gambling to concentrate on his profession;
  • Wellington retired from public life after 1846, though he was still consulted by all parties;
  • For these policies he won the gratitude of the peace congress, returning home in 1818 with the batons symbol of field marshal of six foreign countries.

Early life Wesley later, from 1798, Wellesley was the fifth son of the 1st earl of Mornington. In 1790—97 he held the family seat of Trim in the Irish Parliament.

At 24, though in debt, he proposed to Catherine Kitty Pakenham but was rejected. Arthur abandoned heavy gambling to concentrate on his profession. After failing to obtain civil employment, he was glad to be posted to India in 1796. In India he adopted a regimen of abstemiousness and good humour.

The arrival of his eldest brother, Richard, as viceroy enabled him to exploit his talents. He commanded a division against Tipu Sultan of Mysore and became governor of Mysore 1799 and commander in chief against the Marathas. Victories, especially at Assaye 1803resulted in a peace that he himself negotiated.

  • Some modern historians have objected to the posthumous title Iron Duke on the reasonable grounds that he was neither cold nor hard-hearted;
  • She died on April 24, 1831.

All the successful qualities he later exhibited on European battlefields were developed in India: But he felt he must serve wherever duty required. He spent two years in Ireland as Tory chief secretary.

Early life

On a brief military expedition in Copenhagen 1807a welcome break, he defeated a small Danish force. When in 1808 the Portuguese rose against Napoleon, Wellesley was ordered to support them. Public outcry brought about the court-martial of Wellesley and his colleagues. Though acquitted, Wellesley returned to Ireland as chief secretary. After the British evacuated Spain, however, he persuaded the government to let him renew hostilities in 1809, arguing that Portugal could still be held, a decision that was crucial to Europe.

His slowly growing army was not strong enough to capture the Spanish fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz until 1812. His siege of Burgos failed and his army retreated again to Portugal, from which it was launched for the last time into Spain in May 1813.

The acomplishments of arthur wesley as a military commander

After a dash across the peninsula, he brought the French to bay at Vitoriarouting them and capturing all their baggage June 21. When dry weather came, Wellington invaded France, crossing the river lines one after another until on April 10, 1814, he stormed into Toulouse, thus ending the Peninsular War. Four days earlier Napoleon had abdicated. British commander Arthur Wellesley overseeing the removal of the French flag after his forces retook Ciudad Rodrigo, Spain, in 1812, during the Peninsular War.

In February 1815 he took the place of Viscount Castlereagh, the foreign secretary, at the Congress of Viennabut, before delegates could finish their peacemaking, Napoleon had escaped, landing in France March 1 to begin his Hundred Days.

Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington

As commander in chief during the occupation of France, he opposed a punitive peace, organized loans to rescue French finances, and advised withdrawal of the occupying troops after three years. For these policies he won the gratitude of the peace congress, returning home in 1818 with the batons symbol of field marshal of six foreign countries.

British commander Arthur Wellesley doffing his hat to another officer in the thick of the Battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815. The popular George Canning succeeded Viscount Castlereagh as foreign secretary in 1822.

When Canning extricated Britain from its European commitments, Wellington was left to bitter self-reproach.

Role in the cabinet

His own diplomatic failures at the Congress of Verona 1822at which he vainly sought to heal dissension among the European allies, and in Russia 1826 increased his chagrin. He worked privately at a solution, by which a papal concordat to ensure at least minimum control of Catholic clergy would be the precondition of Emancipation.

When Canning, an unqualified Emancipator, became prime minister in April 1827, however, Wellington felt that Protestant Ascendancy was in jeopardy. He and Robert Peel headed a mass exodus from the government, Wellington also resigning his command of the army.

Having reluctantly resigned again as commander in chief, he invited the Canningites, headed by William Huskissonto serve, while dropping the ultra-Tories as incompatible with his policy of moderation. With the right wing thus alienated, a chasm began to open on the left.

Wisely, the duke retreated, first on a church issue, himself reforming the Test and Corporation Acts that penalized Nonconformists, and again on a Corn Law prohibiting importation of cheaper foreign grains question, introducing a more liberal reform than he and the agricultural interest desired.

Shortly afterward, however, he collided head-on with the Huskissonites on parliamentary reform; the whole group resigned in May. The defeat of Vesey-Fitzgerald, a popular pro-Catholic, carried an alarming moral for the duke: There might well be civil war. In August 1828 Wellington therefore undertook the most exacting political duty of his career—the conversion of George IV, Peel, who was now leader of the Commonsand a majority of Tories to Catholic Emancipation, a reform that they had hitherto regarded as anathema.

It took six months of indefatigable persuasion behind closed doors to win over the king.

  1. After the British evacuated Spain, however, he persuaded the government to let him renew hostilities in 1809, arguing that Portugal could still be held, a decision that was crucial to Europe.
  2. At 24, though in debt, he proposed to Catherine Kitty Pakenham but was rejected. His intense friendships with Harriet the wife of Charles Arbuthnot, Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, and others showed that he could have been happy with a clever woman; perhaps he was happiest of all, however, in the camaraderie of his staff—his military family.
  3. He was mobbed nonetheless by an angry crowd on Waterloo Day. The arrival of his eldest brother, Richard, as viceroy enabled him to exploit his talents.
  4. Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington, hand-coloured engraving after a portrait by Thomas Lawrence.
  5. Wellington twice reached the zenith of fame with a period of unexampled odium intervening.

Wellington has sometimes been criticized for inconsistency. It now appears that he was merely secretive in not taking the public into his confidence much earlier. His willingness for some form of Emancipation by 1825 might with advantage have been disclosed. Wellington saw parliamentary reform not as a panacea but as constitutional suicide. A fortnight before the opening of Parliament he wrote a letter to a friend denouncing reform as ruinous and disclosing his unalterable decision to oppose it.

He staggered Parliament on November 2 with an uncompromising declaration against any reform whatever. A combination of reformers and vengeful ultra-Tories defeated him on the 15th. Peel made him resign the next day. He was succeeded by Grey. The titanic struggle culminated in the crisis of May 1832, which promised to end like the July Revolution of France.

The king refused to create enough new peers to overwhelm the hostile Lords, Grey resigned, and Wellington failed to recruit an alternative government. Faced by tumultuous deadlock, Wellington, still opposing reform, then retreated for the sake of the country, persuading his followers to join him in absenting himself from Parliament until the Reform Bill became law in June.

He was mobbed nonetheless by an angry crowd on Waterloo Day. Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington, hand-coloured engraving after a portrait by Thomas Lawrence. In 1834 William IV dismissed the Whigs by a political coup, summoning the duke to form a ministry, but the 65-year-old duke replied that Peel must be prime minister.

This abnegation, most rare in a politician, did not go unappreciated. He served under Peel as foreign secretary 1834—35 and as minister without portfolio 1841—46.

Oh no, there's been an error

He made a mistake in holding the chief command of the army throughout his last 10 years, because he was past initiating the reforms that were later sorely needed. Nevertheless, he showed a touch of his old genius in 1848, when his calm handling of a threatened Chartist rising prevented any violence.

  1. When dry weather came, Wellington invaded France, crossing the river lines one after another until on April 10, 1814, he stormed into Toulouse, thus ending the Peninsular War. He staggered Parliament on November 2 with an uncompromising declaration against any reform whatever.
  2. All the successful qualities he later exhibited on European battlefields were developed in India. The popular George Canning succeeded Viscount Castlereagh as foreign secretary in 1822.
  3. In February 1815 he took the place of Viscount Castlereagh, the foreign secretary, at the Congress of Vienna , but, before delegates could finish their peacemaking, Napoleon had escaped, landing in France March 1 to begin his Hundred Days.
  4. Reaction came after his death.

Wellington retired from public life after 1846, though he was still consulted by all parties. As lord warden of the Cinque Portshe died at Walmer Castle, his favourite residence, from a stroke in 1852. He was given a monumental state funeral, the last heraldic one in Great Britain, and was buried in St. His marriage was not happy: Kitty both feared him and worshipped him to excess. She died on April 24, 1831. Of his two sons, the elder edited his latest Despatches and the younger produced the grandchildren to whom he was devoted, as he was to all children.

His intense friendships with Harriet the wife of Charles Arbuthnot, Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, and others showed that he could have been happy with a clever woman; perhaps he was happiest of all, however, in the camaraderie of his staff—his military family.

Some modern historians have objected to the posthumous title Iron Duke on the reasonable grounds that he was neither cold nor hard-hearted. Yet he himself often boasted of his iron hand in maintaining discipline.