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Oliver cromwell the lord protector of england scotland and ireland

Cromwell imposed on Scotland a full and incorporating parliamentary union with England 1652. However, this union, maintained by an army of occupation, did not enjoy popular consent. Robert Cromwell died when his son was 18, but his widow lived to the age of 89. Oliver went to the local grammar school and then for a year attended Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. By her he was to have five sons and four daughters.

During his early married life, Cromwell, like his father, was profoundly conscious of his responsibilities to his fellow men and concerned himself with affairs in his native Fenlandbut he was also the victim of a spiritual and psychological struggle that perplexed his mind and damaged his health.

He does not appear to have experienced conversion until he was nearly 30; later he described to a cousin how he had emerged from darkness into light. In his 30s Cromwell sold his freehold land and became a tenant on the estate of Henry Lawrence at St. Lawrence was planning at that time to emigrate to New Englandand Cromwell was almost certainly planning to accompany him, but the plan failed. He had strong links with Puritan groups in Oliver cromwell the lord protector of england scotland and ireland and Essexand there is some evidence that he attended, and perhaps preached at, an underground conventicle.

He believed that the individual Christian could establish direct contact with God through prayer and that the principal duty of the clergy was to inspire the laity by preaching.

He criticized the bishop in the House of Commons and was appointed a member of a committee to investigate other complaints against him. Cromwell, in fact, distrusted the whole hierarchy of the Church of Englandthough he was never opposed to a state church. He therefore advocated abolishing the institution of the episcopate and the banning of a set ritual as prescribed in The Book of Common Prayer.

He believed that Christian congregations ought to be allowed to choose their own ministers, who should serve them by preaching and extemporaneous prayer.

Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland

In Parliament he bolstered his reputation as a religious hothead by promoting radical reform. In fact, he was too outspoken for the leaders of the opposition, who ceased to use him as their mouthpiece after the early months of the Long Parliament.

A month later Charles vainly attempted to arrest five of them for treason: Cromwell was not yet sufficiently prominent to be among these. But when in 1642 the king left London to raise an army, and events drifted toward civil warCromwell began to distinguish himself not merely as an outspoken Puritan but also as a practical man capable of organization and leadership.

In July he obtained permission from the House of Commons to allow his constituency of Cambridge to form and arm companies for its defense, in August he himself rode to Cambridge to prevent the colleges from sending their plate to be melted down for the benefit of the king, and as soon as the war began he enlisted a troop of cavalry in his birthplace of Huntingdon. As a captain he made his first appearance with his troop in the closing stages of the Battle of Edgehill October 23, 1642 where Robert Devereux, 3rd earl of Essexwas commander in chief for Parliament in the first major contest of the war.

Military and political leader During 1643 Cromwell acquired a reputation both as a military organizer and a fighting man. From the very beginning he had insisted that the men who served on the parliamentarian side should be carefully chosen and properly trained, and he made it a point to find loyal and well-behaved men regardless of their religious beliefs or social status. Appointed a colonel in February, he began to recruit a first-class cavalry regiment.

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While he demanded good treatment and regular payment for his troopers, he exercised strict discipline. If they swore, they were fined; if drunk, put in the stocks; if they called each other Roundheads —thus endorsing the contemptuous epithet the Royalists applied to them because of their closecropped hair—they were cashiered; and if they deserted, they were whipped.

So successfully did he train his own cavalrymen that he was able to check and re-form them after they charged in battle. Throughout 1643 he served in the eastern counties that he knew so well. These formed a recognized centre of parliamentary strength, but, unwilling to stay on the defensive, Cromwell was determined to prevent the penetration of Yorkshire Royalists into the eastern counties and decided to counterattack.

By re-forming his men in a moment of crisis in the face of an unbeaten enemy, he won the Battle of Gainsborough in Lincolnshire on July 28.

On the same day he was appointed governor of the Isle of Elya large plateau-like hill rising above the surrounding fens, that was thought of as a possible bastion against advancing Royalists. In fact, however, Cromwell, fighting alongside the parliamentary general Sir Thomas Fairfaxsucceeded in stemming the Royalist attacks at Winceby in Lincolnshire and then successfully besieged Newark in Nottinghamshire.

  1. The younger Cromwell, who succeeded on his father's death in September 1658, held the position for only eight months before resigning in May 1659, being followed by the second period of Commonwealth rule until the Restoration of the exiled heir to the Stuart throne Charles II in May 1660. The replacement constitution of 1657, the Humble Petition and Advice , [1] gave "His Highness the Lord Protector" the power to nominate his successor.
  2. By her he was to have five sons and four daughters.
  3. Cromwell now hoped for pacification, a political settlement, and social reform.
  4. In fact, however, Cromwell, fighting alongside the parliamentary general Sir Thomas Fairfax , succeeded in stemming the Royalist attacks at Winceby in Lincolnshire and then successfully besieged Newark in Nottinghamshire.
  5. He believed that Christian congregations ought to be allowed to choose their own ministers, who should serve them by preaching and extemporaneous prayer.

He was now able to persuade the House of Commons, well pleased with these victories, to create a new army, that would not merely defend eastern England but would march out and attack the enemy. Gwendraith This new army was formed under the command of Edward Montagu, 2nd earl of Manchesterearly in 1644. After an alliance had been concluded with the Scots, he was also appointed a member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms, which became responsible for the overall strategy of the Civil War.

But since he was engaged at the front during the campaigning season, Cromwell took little oliver cromwell the lord protector of england scotland and ireland in its deliberations. He was, however, defeated in the Battle of Marston MoorJuly 2, 1644, that in effect gave the north of England to Parliament.

He did not believe that Manchester really wanted to win the war, and in mid-September he laid his complaints before the Committee of Both Kingdoms. Oliver Cromwell at the Battle of Marston Moor. Manchester retorted by attacking Cromwell in the House of Lords. In December 1644, Cromwell proposed that in the future no members of either house of Parliament should be allowed to hold commands or offices in the armed forces; his proposal was accepted, and it was also agreed that a new army should be constituted under Sir Thomas Fairfax.

Cromwell, an admirer of Fairfax, put forward his name and then busied himself with planning the new army, from which, as a member of Parliament, he himself was excluded. But, significantly, the post of second in command was left open, and, when the Civil War reached its climax in the summer of 1645, Fairfax insisted that Cromwell should be appointed to it. Thus he was able to join Fairfax in the siege of Oxford, from which Charles I escaped before it surrendered.

He attributed these victories to the mercy of God and demanded that the men who had served the country so faithfully should have their due reward. The army was growing more and more restive, and, on the day Cromwell left London, a party of soldiers seized Charles I. Cromwell and his son-in-law, Henry Iretoninterviewed the king twice, trying to persuade him to agree to a constitutional settlement that they then intended to submit to Parliament.

At that time Cromwell, no enemy of the king, was touched by his devotion to his children. His main task, however, was to overcome the general feeling in the army that neither the king nor Parliament could be trusted.

Lord Protector

When, under pressure from the rank and file, General Fairfax led the army toward the houses of Parliament in London, Cromwell still insisted that the authority of Parliament must be upheld, and in September he also resisted a proposal in the House of Commons that no further addresses should be made to the king. Just over a month later he took the chair at meetings of the General Council of the Army which included representatives of the private soldiers known as Agitators [Adjutators] and assured them that he was not committed to any particular form of government and had not had any underhand dealings with the king.

On the other hand, fearing anarchyhe opposed extremist measures such as the abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords and the introduction of a more democratic constitution.

  • Fairfax now ordered him to return to London, but he did not arrive until after Ireton and his colleagues had removed from the House of Commons all members who favoured continuing negotiations with the king;
  • The replacement constitution of 1657, the Humble Petition and Advice , [1] gave "His Highness the Lord Protector" the power to nominate his successor.

General Fairfax first ordered Cromwell into Wales to crush a rising there and then sent him north to fight the Scottish army that invaded England in June. The correspondence he conducted during the siege with the governor of the Isle of Wight, whose duty it was to keep watch on the king, reveals that he was increasingly turning against Charles. Parliamentary commissioners had been sent to the island in order to make one final effort to reach an agreement with the king.

But Cromwell told the governor that the king was not to be trusted, that concessions over religion must not be granted, and that the army might be considered a lawful power capable of ensuring the safety of the people and the liberty of all Christians. While Cromwell, still not entirely decided on his course, lingered in the north, his son-in-law Ireton and other officers in the southern army took decisive action. They drew up a remonstrance to Parliament complaining about the negotiations in the Isle of Wight and demanding the trial of the king as a Man of Blood.

While Cromwell still felt uncertain about his own views, he admitted that his army agreed with the army in the south. Fairfax now ordered him to return to London, but he did not arrive until after Ireton and his colleagues had removed from the House of Commons all members who favoured continuing negotiations with the king.

He was one of the 135 commissioners in the High Court of Justice and, when the king refused to plead, he signed the death warrant. Detesting the Irish as primitive, savage, and superstitious, he believed they had carried out a huge massacre of English settlers in 1641.

Fairfax had refused the command, so on June 25 Cromwell was appointed captain general in his place. He felt more tender toward the Scots, most of whom were fellow Puritans, than toward the Catholic Irish.

The campaign proved difficult, and during the winter of 1650 Cromwell was taken ill. But he defeated the Scots with an army inferior in oliver cromwell the lord protector of england scotland and ireland at the Battle of Dunbar on September 3, 1650, and a year later, when Charles II and the Scots advanced into England, Cromwell destroyed that army at Worcester.

This battle ended the Civil Wars. Cromwell now hoped for pacification, a political settlement, and social reform. It believed that the members were corrupt and that a new Parliament should be called. Once again Cromwell tried to mediate between the two antagonistsbut his sympathies were with his soldiers.

When he finally came to the conclusion that Parliament must be dissolved and replaced, he called in his musketeers and on April 20, 1653, expelled the members from the House. But just as he had considered the previous Parliament to be slow and self-seeking, he came to think that the Assembly of Saints, as it was called, was too hasty and too radical.

He also resented the fact that it did not consult him. As commander in chief appointed by Parliament, he believed that he was the only legally constituted authority left. Administration as lord protector Before Cromwell summoned his first Protectorate Parliament on September 3, 1654, he and his Council of State passed more than 80 ordinances embodying a constructive domestic policy.

  • He was one of the 135 commissioners in the High Court of Justice and, when the king refused to plead, he signed the death warrant;
  • Robert Cromwell died when his son was 18, but his widow lived to the age of 89;
  • At that time Cromwell, no enemy of the king, was touched by his devotion to his children;
  • The 1653 Instrument of Government republican constitution stated that— Oliver Cromwell, Captain-General of the forces of England, Scotland and Ireland, shall be, and is hereby declared to be, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the dominions thereto belonging, for his life;
  • Outside the church he permitted all Christians to practice their own religion so long as they did not create disorder and unrest;
  • They drew up a remonstrance to Parliament complaining about the negotiations in the Isle of Wight and demanding the trial of the king as a Man of Blood.

His aim was to reform the law, to set up a Puritan Church, to permit toleration outside it, to promote education, and to decentralize administration.

The resistance of the lawyers somewhat dampened his enthusiasm for law reform, but he was able to appoint good judges both in England and Ireland. He was strongly opposed to severe punishments for minor crimessaying: During his Protectorate, committees known as Triers and Ejectors were set up to ensure that a high standard of conduct was maintained by clergy and schoolmasters.

In spite of resistance from some members of his council Cromwell readmitted Jews into the country. He concerned himself with educationwas an excellent chancellor of Oxford Universityfounded a college at Durhamand saw to it that grammar schools flourished as they had never done before.

Oliver Cromwell

Foreign and economic policies In 1654 Cromwell brought about a satisfactory conclusion to the Anglo-Dutch Warwhich, as a contest between fellow Protestants, he had always disliked. The question then arose of how best to employ his army and navy.

  • But since he was engaged at the front during the campaigning season, Cromwell took little part in its deliberations;
  • The title was held by Oliver Cromwell [1] December 1653 — September 1658 and subsequently his son and designated successor Richard Cromwell September 1658 — May 1659 during what is now known as The Protectorate;
  • His Council of State was divided, but eventually he resolved to conclude an alliance with France against Spain;
  • But he found it equally difficult to govern either with or without parliaments;
  • By her he was to have five sons and four daughters.

His Council of State was divided, but eventually he resolved to conclude an alliance with France against Spain. As the price for sending an expeditionary force to Spanish Flanders to fight alongside the French he obtained possession of the port of Dunkirk. He also interested himself in Scandinavian affairs; although he admired King Charles X of Swedenhis first consideration in attempting to mediate in the Baltic was the advantages that would result for his own country.

In spite of the emphasis Cromwell laid on the Protestant interest in some of his speechesthe guiding motive in his foreign policy was national and not religious benefit. His economic and industrial policy followed mainly traditional lines. But he opposed monopolieswhich were disliked by the country and had only benefited the court gentry under Queen Elizabeth and the first two Stuarts.

For this reason the East Indian trade was thrown open for three years, but in the end Cromwell granted the company a new charter October 1657 in return for financial aid.

A radical in some directions, such as in seeking the reform of the laws, Cromwell now adopted a conservative attitude because he feared that the overthrow of the monarchy might lead to political collapse. Except for 100 convinced republicans, the members agreed to do so but were still more concerned with rewriting the constitution than reforming the laws as desired by the protector. As soon as he could legitimately do so January 22, 1655Cromwell dissolved Parliament.

In the aftermath of that Parliament, Cromwell faced a Royalist insurrection. Oliver cromwell the lord protector of england scotland and ireland rising fizzled out—too many of those who had secretly pledged support to the king waited to see what others were doing—but Cromwell was aware that local magistrates and militia commissioners had closely monitored the situation.

He could rely on the acquiescence of the gentry but not on any commitment from them. He therefore determined to increase security by sending senior army officers the major generals to recruit veterans of the Civil Wars into an efficient militiathe costs of which would be defrayed by collections from all those convicted of royalism in the1640s.

They ran into serious trouble when the next Parliament met a year early in 1656, to vote on taxes to pay for a war by land and sea against the Spanish.