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Loss causation models history theory and application

The receiver of energy transfer can be assisted by adopting the following measures: Figure 1-1 shows these energy types.

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It could be argued that some of the definitions and examples of energy types overlap. I'm not trying to be scientifically accurate. I want, instead to let you know all the possible energy releases that can cause financial losses in a business setting. Kinetic Energy is the energy contained in an object that is moving. Examples of such moving objects are industrial trucks, a projectile from a grinding wheel, and a wrench falling from an overhead crane. Obviously, as the energy from let's say a moving forklift truck is transferred to a person being struck, the seriousness of the resulting injury will be determined by how much energy the object transfers to the person at the moment of impact, the angle of the impact, where on the body the contact is made plus other variables.

Chemical Energy is the power of a chemical to react with the chemicals making up the object with which the chemical contacts. Obviously, certain acids and caustics can react strongly with various parts of a human being as well as machines, equipment, and the environment. Thermal Energy or heat can cause heat stroke or can manifest itself in the form of fire, which can destroy people, property and the environment.

Electrical Energy can cause the heart to fibrillate or can convert itself into heat energy and severely burn a person Mechanical Energy is really kinetic energy contained within moving parts of machines such as gears, pulleys, and rotating shafts. Ionizing Radiation Energy is made up of alpha and beta particles and gamma rays given off by radioactive material and x-rays given off by cathode ray tubes.

Non-ionizing Radiation Energy includes electromagnetic waves within the frequency known as laser light and microwaves. Meteorological Energy is the energy contained in the various ways that weather is created. This energy category is kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is carried in moving air in the form of wind, carried in moving water in the form of waves and rushing rivers, and in the earth's crusts in the form of earthquakes.

Biological Energy is made up of the destructive power of bacteria and viruses. OSHA has recognized these deleterious effects by promulgating the bloodborne pathogens standard. Acoustical Energy is noise energy, which in sufficient duration and intensity can damage the hearing function. This could be carried further to include vibration energy that could affect a person's muscular-skeletal structure.

Pressurized Energy in the forms of pressurized gases and liquids. One only has to witness a compressed gas cylinder that has had its valve severed from the cylinder moving as a missile through concrete walls to understand the power in this energy type. Of course the impact of the moving cylinder is considered kinetic energy and the energy stored in the gas or liquid is considered potential energy. Since we're trying to have managers be able to identify loss incidents as uncontrolled releases of energy, it is worthwhile to loss causation models history theory and application compressed gases and liquids as a separate energy type.

Loss causation model theory

Potential Energy is the energy within an object at rest as opposed to kinetic energy, which is the energy within a moving object. Potential energy from a loss incident standpoint is found in objects that people try to lift back injuries or in a flywheel that could cycle when the machine is shut off causing crushing injuries.

This latter energy type is included because it is necessary to address if we want to take a total-loss-incident-prevention approach. Complete the following short quiz: Canadian Centre for Occupational Safety and Health The simple model shown in Figure 1 attempts to illustrate that the causes of any accident can be grouped into five categories - task, material, environment, personnel, and management.

When this model is used, possible causes in each category should be investigated. Each category is examined more closely below. Remember that these are sample questions only: Members of the accident investigation team will look for answers to questions such as: Was a safe work procedure used?

Had conditions changed to make the normal procedure unsafe? Were the appropriate tools and materials available? Were safety devices working properly? Was lockout used when necessary? For most of these questions, an important follow-up question is " If not, why not? Was there an equipment failure? What caused it to fail?

Was the machinery poorly designed? Were hazardous substances involved? Was a less hazardous alternative substance possible and available? Was the raw material substandard in some way? Should personal protective equipment PPE have been used?

Was the PPE used? Were users of PPE properly trained? Again, each time the answer reveals an unsafe condition, the investigator must ask why this situation was allowed to exist. The situation at loss causation models history theory and application time of the accident is what is important, not what the "usual" conditions were.

For example, accident investigators may want to know: What were the weather conditions?

  • Should personal protective equipment PPE have been used?
  • It could be argued that some of the definitions and examples of energy types overlap;
  • Should personal protective equipment PPE have been used?

Was poor housekeeping a problem? Was it too hot or too cold? Was noise a problem? Were toxic or hazardous gases, dusts, or fumes present? The purpose for investigating the accident is not to establish blame against someone but the inquiry will not be complete unless personal characteristics are considered. Some factors will remain essentially constant while others may vary from day to day: Were workers experienced in the work being done?

Had they been adequately trained? Can they physically do the work? What was the status of their health? Were they under stress work or personal? Failures of management systems are often found to be direct or indirect factors in accidents. Ask questions such as: Were safety rules communicated to and understood by all employees?

Were written procedures and orientation available?

Were they being enforced? Were workers trained to do the work? Had hazards been previously identified? Had procedures been developed to overcome them?

Loss causation model theory

Were unsafe conditions corrected? Was regular maintenance of equipment carried out? Were regular safety inspections carried out?

This model of accident investigations provides a guide for uncovering all possible causes and reduces the likelihood of looking at facts in isolation. Some investigators may prefer to place some of the sample questions in different categories; however, the categories are not important, as long as each pertinent question is asked.

Obviously there is considerable overlap between categories; this reflects the situation in real life.

  • Some factors will remain essentially constant while others may vary from day to day;
  • Remember that these are sample questions only;
  • Using the final investigation report for the 2007 BP America Refinery Explosion which occurred in 2005, use three of the accident causation theories presented and describe the accident in terms of the three accident causation models;
  • Canadian Centre for Occupational Safety and Health The simple model shown in Figure 1 attempts to illustrate that the causes of any accident can be grouped into five categories - task, material, environment, personnel, and management.

Again it should be emphasized that the above sample questions do not make up a complete checklist, but are examples only. Results of Accidents After having defined the types of energy that make up loss incidents, it is logical to look at the types of losses that can result from loss incidents.

From a financial liability standpoint, an uncontrolled release of energy can result in injury, illness, property loss, and environmental pollution. Likewise, a loss incident resulting in an employee illness would be called an illness incident, a loss incident resulting in property loss would be a property loss incident and one resulting in environmental pollution would be a pollution incident. We can also have the situation where energy is released uncontrollably and no one or no property is nearby or the release is contained before it can negatively affect the environment.

For the lack of a better term, we can use Bird's term and call these situations near-loss incidents Bird 1974, 18.

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One problem exists with calling them near-loss incidents. The term implies that no money is lost, which may not be the case. An example of a near-loss incident resulting in a financial loss is a piece of scrap lumber falling from an overhead crane walkway, nearly striking an employee. No one was hurt, no property was damaged, and the environment was not polluted.

  • Examples of such moving objects are industrial trucks, a projectile from a grinding wheel, and a wrench falling from an overhead crane;
  • The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is david lewis structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the;
  • Bird and germain loss causation model loss causation- updated version of the domino theory 5 dominoes but they are;
  • One problem exists with calling them near-loss incidents;
  • Yet, employees who witnessed the incident will shut off their machines and come over to discuss the incident, thus resulting in equipment downtime and productive work lost;
  • Application of a loss causation model to the westray mine explosion the multiple layers of accident causation by systematic application of a loss causation model.

Yet, employees who witnessed the incident will shut off their machines and come over to discuss the incident, thus resulting in equipment downtime and productive work lost. Two costs incidentally that we can measure.

  1. Were users of PPE properly trained? Since we're trying to have managers be able to identify loss incidents as uncontrolled releases of energy, it is worthwhile to categorize compressed gases and liquids as a separate energy type.
  2. As the plaintiff alleges facts to support a theory that is not formulated the rule on pleading and proving loss causation, but the contours of the rule. Potential Energy is the energy within an object at rest as opposed to kinetic energy, which is the energy within a moving object.
  3. Were they under stress work or personal?

That is to say for every dollar of insured costs of loss incidents a certain number of uninsured or hidden costs are incurred as well. This text will discuss only those costs that can be documented and measured.

Only those costs that can be used to motivate management action to take action to control energy sources will be covered. These cost categories are: Using the final investigation report for the 2007 BP America Refinery Explosion which occurred in 2005, use three of the accident causation theories presented and describe the accident in terms of the three accident causation models. Complete the assignment and upload the activity to your instructor through D2L by the due date in the course syllabus.