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Example of related literature for study habits

A Study on Study Habits and Academic Performance of Students

The participants were graduates in school year 2009-2010 from the different programs of the University which require licensure examination. Results of the study showed that the participants do not have favorable study habits and attitudes. Among the noted unfavorable study habits were inefficient time management, lack of planning and concentration in their studies, poor skills in reading, ineffective test taking techniques, and failure to inform their teachers of their difficulties with school work and ask for their help.

It was further revealed that their performance in licensure examinations was quite low. Significant relationship between study habits and attitudes and performance in licensure examination were clearly shown in this study. Further analysis revealed that study habits work methods and time management of the participants were correlated with their success in licensure examination while study attitudes i.

This connotes that students who have favorable study habits will likely pass the licensure examination. Study Habits and Attitudes: The Road to Academic Success. Open Science Repository Education, Online open-accesse70081928. January 21, 2013 Copyright: Creative Commons Attribution 3. It is used to pass judgment on the quality of education offered by academic institutions. In fact, it is still the most topical debate in higher learning institutions that caused great concern to educators and researchers due to the alarming examination performance of students.

In the report of the Professional Regulation Commission PRC on performance of graduates in the different licensure and board examinations, data show that performance of graduates has been declining in the last ten years. In the 2010 professional licensure examinations given by the PRC, almost 70 percent of college graduates in the country failed and, last year, only 125,419 of the 345,182 or 36.

September – 2014

These statistics were based on the results of licensure examinations for 45 groups of professionals. Among the lowest number of passing rates were posted by: What explains these performance discrepancies?

Multiple reports indicate that academic success cannot be predicted by a single variable. It is dependent upon many factors; both cognitive and non-cognitive. Numerous studies have been carried out which focused on cognitive factors as predictors of academic success.

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Recently, there has been a growing interest on the non-cognitive factors. A number of researchers have examined the role of non-cognitive variables such as study skills Fazal, S. In a more recent meta-analysis, Crede and Kuncel 2008 found that non-cognitive factors like study habit, skill and study motivation, among other attitudinal constructs, accounted for incremental variance in academic performance beyond standardized tests and previous grades.

Moreover, a literature review by Nagaraju 2004 pointed out that, for good academic success, good study habits and attitudes are important. Hence, it is imperative and desirable that a probe into the pattern of study habits and attitudes of students be made. Specifically, the study was organized around the following questions: What are the study habits and attitudes of the students? How did the students perform in the licensure examinations?

Significance of the study A number of studies pointed out that study habits and attitudes are important in academic success. Hence, it is important and desirable that a probe into the pattern of study habits and attitudes of the students and its relationship with licensure examination performance be made.

  1. It further revealed that those students where the curriculum was implemented have increased academic achievement as compared to the group of students on which the curriculum was not implemented.
  2. It further revealed that reading and note-taking habits, habits of concentration, and preparation for examination had significant correlation with academic achievement. The authors pointed out that students who are better in reading and note-taking, well prepared for the board examination and have concentration may have better academic achievement.
  3. Ford proposed a simple mathematical formula that attempts to represent all these factors in one model.
  4. Earlier studies have been carried out which focused on cognitive factors as predictors of academic success.

This framework focuses on the individual as the unit of analysis, but embeds the individual in the biological, social, and environmental contexts that are crucial to development. Ford proposed a simple mathematical formula that attempts to represent all these factors in one model. The formula for effective person-in-context functioning is: That is, the variability in motivation across students may dampen associations between ability and performance. Therefore, similar to how motivation interacts with ability to influence academic performance, one can infer that study habits and attitudes interact with ability to influence student performance in board examination.

It has become an issue of standards and quality in education as judged from the performance of students in national licensure and board examinations. However, various reports have documented the poor examination performance of students. For example the report of the PRC on performance of graduates in the different licensure and board examinations which has been declining in the last ten years.

This statistics were based on the results of licensure examinations for 45 groups of professionals. Other report provided data about education standard; indicating that deterioration had occurred in all fields of education in the society.

The low performance of students in licensure examinations has important ramifications to educators, schools and the educational system in general. Hence, there is a need to look into the factors that contribute to the academic performance of students. Study habits and attitudes of students Many studies have analyzed the factors behind the performance of students. Earlier studies have been carried out which example of related literature for study habits on cognitive factors as predictors of academic success.

Moreover, a literature review by Nagaraju 2004 pointed out that for good academic success, good study habits and attitudes are important. Study habit is the pattern of behavior adopted by students in the pursuit of their studies that serves as the vehicle of learning.

It is the degree to which the student engages in regular acts of studying that are characterized by appropriate studying routines e. In short, study habits and attitudes of students are determined through their time management ability, work methods, attitudes toward teachers and acceptance of education. A review of literature highlighted the importance of students study habits and attitudes in their academic performance.

According to Menzel, cited by Rana and Kausar 2011many students fail not because they lack ability but because they do not have adequate study skills. Students who have difficulty in college frequently do not have adequate study habits that affect their academic achievement. A central problem noted was that many of these students had not learned how to take effective notes and manage time for studying cited by Mutsotso S.

Moreover, a study by Nagaraju 2004 found that students usually do not devote sufficient time to their studies and seldom have proper study habits. Efficient study habits are associated with a favorable attitude toward learning in general. As cited by Otto 1978beliefs in the value of intellectual pursuits and in the importance of education are positively related to academic performance. In the study of Sarwar et. Another research found discrepancy between the study attitudes of high and low-achieving students.

High-achieving students had a more positive attitude toward study in that they detected and reacted positively to the favorable aspects of the situation they found themselves in, while the low-achieving students tended to be fault-finders, reacting to the negative aspects of study such as distractions and minor annoyances.

The high-achieving students found tertiary work an interesting challenge, accepted the restrictions and conformed to the demands made upon them more readily, while the low achievers appeared to lack high-level motivation.

The more successful group was also found to be more realistic and discriminating in their assessment of those situations which were highly relevant to scholastic achievement, such as discipline and work priorities, and they were better organized in both their work and leisure activities. In terms of attitude towards teachers, the high achievers generally have a positive attitude towards teachers.

For instance, as compared to low achievers, the high achievers more often say that their teachers are competent, impartial, and interested in their duties Sarwar, M. Yu 2011 in his study revealed that among the SHSA factors examined, student perception of teacher effectiveness influence accounting performance. The study of Osa-Edoh and Alutu 2012 which examined the usefulness of imbibing in the students study habit, as a means of enhancing their academic performance, revealed a high correlation between study habits and students academic performance.

This suggests that it is only when students imbibe or cultivate proper study habits that their academic performance can be improved upon. Similarly, Nuthana and Yenagi 2009 found significant correlation between study habits and academic achievement. It further revealed that reading and note-taking habits, habits of concentration, and preparation for examination had significant correlation with academic achievement.

The authors pointed out that students who are better in reading and note-taking, well prepared for the board examination and have concentration may have better academic achievement. An association between study skills and academic performance also has been found to prevail among undergraduate example of related literature for study habits.

The study of Fazal 2012 identified various study skills used by learners and ascertain which study skills is more related to academic achievement. Results of the study indicate significant relationship of time-management skills, reading and note-taking skills with academic achievement.

Students with higher academic achievement used a wide range of study skills as compared to students with lower academic achievement. Another study was conducted using a Q factor analysis to understand the study behavior and habits of undergraduate students. The Q factor analysis was used to classify students as either proactive learners with well-organized study behavior or disorganized procrastinators based on their self-reported study behavior.

Findings of the study showed a significant difference in the academic performance of the two groups of students. Nonis and Hudson 2010 also conducted a study on performance of college students-impact of study time and study habits in which they found that some study habits had a positive direct relationship on student performance but others had a negative direct relationship.

Because of the importance of study habits and attitudes on academic performance, some researchers have proposed strategies that will help students develop effective study habits and attitudes.

Study Habits and Attitudes: The Road to Academic Success

For example, the study of Demir et al. The students were able to organize the study environment and use specific methods effectively, such as efficient reading, listening lectures, note-taking, efficient writing and doing homework. It further revealed that those students where the curriculum was implemented have increased academic achievement as compared to the group of students on which the curriculum was not implemented.

Mutsotso and Abenga 2010 also propose a paradigm shift in study methods and suggest strategies for both lecturers and the students in universities towards improved learning and performance. The model will address the study space needs and the efficiency and effectiveness of study methods. To sum up, the literatures cited point to the importance of study habits and attitudes to academic performance or success of students.

Research paradigm The figure shows how the variables of the study are related. The study habits and attitudes of the students could influence their performance outcomes in licensure examinations. The respondents were graduates in school year 2009-2010 from the different programs of the University which require licensure examination.

A total of 239 students comprised of 127 males and 112 females participated in the study. Table 1 shows the distribution of the respondents. The performance rating of the graduates was generated from the data released by the PRC.

It is the overall rating obtained by the graduates in the licensure examinations.

  1. Using your learning styles 2nd ed. Numerous studies have been carried out which focused on cognitive factors as predictors of academic success.
  2. This situation was also the same in the online environment. As Mupingo, Nora, and Yaw 2006 state some of the online classes may have an unknown make-up so the characteristics of online students may be unclear which makes it difficult to develop effective online courses.
  3. At this point, it is quite interesting that the number of students in the groups of the accommodators and the divergers were low within each of three poor, average, and good groups. A closer focus on gender.

Descriptive statistics means, standard deviations, and percentile ranks were used to describe the study habits and attitudes of the students and their performance in licensure examinations. Moreover, relationship of study habits and attitudes with performance in licensure examination was examined by the use of Pearson correlation coefficient.

Study habits and attitudes score of the respondents Analysis of the scores obtained from the SSHA revealed that the respondents do not have very effective approaches in studying.

As reflected in the table, the respondents score in the 50-60th percentile on Study Habits which means they scored at average level. Among the noted unfavorable study habits of the students were inefficient time management, lack of example of related literature for study habits and concentration in their studies, poor skills in reading, ineffective test-taking techniques, and failure to inform their teachers of their difficulties with school work and ask for their help.

Similarly, the respondents recorded Study Attitudes in the 35-45th percentile which is interpreted as average low. The result indicates that the respondents do not have favorable attitudes toward the teacher classroom behavior and practices.