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Did mesopotamia and ancient egypt go to war

From cities to empires During the Metal Age, small cities were governed by kings. Later, the kings unified territories and cities which were nearby in order to extend their possessions and to get greater power. Some other times, they made war to enlarge their territories. This way kings became very powerful and succeeded in forming large empires. As kings expanded their territories, they needed to create a state structure that assured their dominance and power.

To do this, they designated governors and created bodies of civil servants. The governors held administrative and military functions in the farthest provinces, and the civil servants, who could write, read and count, were in charge of collecting taxes. In different places, civil servants were called different names; for example, mandarins in China, and scribes in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

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The relations between the inhabitants became more complicated and to regulate them the first codes of law were created. One example is the code of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia.

The need for other legal documents also increased, such as contracts, receipts, judgements, wills, etc.

  • Nevertheless, the victory at Megiddo was only the beginning of the pacification of the Levant;
  • Egyptians didn't build pyramids during this time, but they did build a burial building called a Mastaba;
  • A total of 31 dynasties controlled Egypt during nearly 4000 years of history;
  • Egyptians didn't build pyramids during this time, but they did build a burial building called a Mastaba.

The Mesopotamian civilization developed between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. It was located in an arid zone, but thanks to the irrigation canals which they built there was an important economic development in the area. It also became a very important region for trade between Asia Minor, the Mediterranean area and Syria. Mesopotamia was historically divided into two regions inhabited by two different peoples: Throughout Mesopotamian history, there was an alternation of power between these peoples: They organised themselves into independent cities.

Did mesopotamia and ancient egypt go to war the year 2200 BC the Akkadian Empire was defeated and a long period of division started.

Ancient egypt Its territory was located along the course of the River Nile and it was divided into two small kingdoms called Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

Upper Egypt was situated in a narrow valley along which the River Nile runs. Lower Egypt is the area a little before the river empties into the Mediterranean sea by forming a wide delta.

Egyptian history is divided into three long periods. During this period, the pharaohs Khufu, Khafra and Menkaura ordered the construction of great pyramids. During this period the pharaohs conquered lands in Nubia, to the south of Egypt. During this period, the pharaohs Thutmose I and Rameses I were important because they conquered Palestine and Syria, extending their territories through the East. In the last years of its history, the Persians and the Greek dominated Egypt.

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Finally they were conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC. In Mesopotamia, architecture and sculpture were of high quality. For construction they used brick and adobe. Mesopotamians invented the arch and the vault. They built splendid palaces, such as that of Khorsabad; monumental gates, such as the Ishtar Gate; and great temples, such as that of Marduk, in Babylon.

We can find two different styles: Egyptian religion and art: The Egyptians were polytheistic. The main god was the sun, called in different ways: Ra, Amun or Atum. Other gods were Isis, Osiris and Horus.

The Egyptians also worshipped natural elements earth, river Nileanimals crocodileand the pharaoh. Religious rites were carried out in the temples. Rites were necessary to preserve the order of the universe. There were priests for each god and a great temple was built to keep the statue of the god where he could be worshipped. Temples had colossal dimensions and they were decorated with enormous columns. The most famous temples are those of Karnak and Luxor, both in Thebes, and that of Abu Simbel, in the south of the country.

The Egyptians believed in life after death and wanted to keep the bodies for the new life.


Dead people were converted into mummies, that is, corpses were dried and wrapped with bandages. Mummies were put into a sarcophagus and buried in tombs The sarcophagus was surrounded by different things that the deceased could need in their life after death: This was the treasure.

The first pharaohs were buried in enormous stone pyramids. Inside the pyramid there was a funeral chamber, where the body of the dead pharaoh and his treasure were placed. The Iberians and the Celts were the most important peoples that inhabited the Iberian Peninsula in Antiquity.

The social organisation was tribal.

Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt: Similarities & Differences

Tribes were usually governed by a king or regulus. The nobles owned most of the lands. The warriors were below nobles in the Iberian social pyramid. The rest of the Iberian society consisted of farmers, craftsmen, traders and slaves. Cereals, vines and olive trees were the most important cultivated crops.

Sheep herds were the most typical cattle.

  • They came in search of metals, salt and esparto;
  • The first available historical evidence has come from Babylon at the time of the Sumerian empire;
  • The governors held administrative and military functions in the farthest provinces, and the civil servants, who could write, read and count, were in charge of collecting taxes;
  • Toward the end of the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs were buried in hidden tombs, many still undiscovered;
  • The more well known pyramids at Giza and the Sphinx were built for Pharaoh Khufu during this time.

Mining gold and silver was an important economical activity in the Peninsula. Iron metallurgy swordswool and linen fabrics and pottery were the main examples of their high-quality craftwork. Iberians developed an intense trade with the Phoenician and Greek colonies established in the Mediterranean coast.

The Iberians had a polytheistic religion and their main deities were women.

  • In 1822 CE a European explorer found what is called the Rossetta Stone--a stone with the same message written in 3 different languages, which finally allowed historians to translate ancient hieroglyphs;
  • The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers ran around and through Mesopotamia, forming what's often called ''the Fertile Crescent'', and ancient Egypt had the Nile River running through it;
  • Egyptians believed in life after death, and they wanted the body to look life-like;
  • One unanticipated result came in the form of the word Armageddon , which took its root from Megiddo's name;
  • Both were located in river valleys, which are areas of flat land that has a river running through it.

They cremated their dead and put their ashes in urns. In Northern Spain they lived together with other native peoples, such as the Cantabrians and the Vascones. They built fortified walled villages called castros. The houses had a circular plan and were constructed in stone and adobe and covered with branches and straw. Their economy was mainly pastoral, based on cattle raising.

However, they also cultivated cereals and were specialised in iron and bronze metallurgy. The Celtic social organisation was based on tribes. Several families formed a clan and several clans made up a tribe. The Celts worshipped some animals bull, horse, deerheavenly bodies and elements of nature. As the Iberians did, they cremated their dead.

The Bulls of Guisando Tartessos Greek written sources and archaeological remains indicate that Tartessos was the oldest kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula. They practiced a very advanced agriculture and cattle raising and they were also expert metalworkers, who worked with gold, silver and copper. They were expert seafarers, ship builders and merchants.

Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC)

The Iberian Peninsula was the westernmost point of their expansion in the Mediterranean. They sailed up to the Andalucian coasts searching for metals. The mining wealth of Tartessos was known in the Mediterranean. They established trading enclaves in the south of the Peninsula. They came in search of metals, salt and esparto.

The Carthaginians succeeded the Phoenician seafarers and extended their control over the Phoenician trading posts and colonies of the western Mediterranean. These wars put an end to the Carthaginian presence in the Iberian Peninsula.