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Cause and effect on high school dropouts

  1. The second variable most strongly associated with dropouts during the period analyzed is the employment status of the head of household. This estimate further incorporates an index that represents the value of household assets, which also has an important negative association the greater the value of assets the lower the dropout.
  2. In what follows we attempt identifying the importance of some of these elements through statistical relationships. Thus, although the number of independent variables considered is small, the results control for time invariant state characteristics.
  3. As for the social consequences of school dropout before the typical age of USE completion the National Youth Survey ENJ 2010 includes information on sexual behavior, alcohol consumption, drug use, and other behaviors, in youth, which can be associated with schooling patterns The National Youth Survey was implemented in 2005 and 2010, resp. This is due, on one hand, to a greater number of students gaining access to USE as a result of increased secondary education completion rates as discussed above, but also the data clearly shows that USE did not evolve at the same rate and in that sense has become a bottleneck for the national education system.

This thesis investigates the nature of student dropout from JSS in one district in the country, through four main questions. What is the relationship between drop-out rates and school characteristics of JSS in K.

What are the factors causing students to drop out? What are the processes of dropping out? What are the consequences of dropping out?

Cause and Effect: The High Cost of High School Dropouts

The thesis investigates the above questions in two phases: In the school survey, among the school factors included in the current study, few showed significant association with the drop-out rates. However, in subsequent in-depth study, the school characteristics were found to exert some influence; for example, the schools with low drop-out rates had stronger teacher commitment. In the school survey, drop-out rates were clearly associated with gender.

  1. The third section uses different data and statistical techniques to investigate the possible causes behind dropout in USE, including personal and family factors, social and community, and general or macro factors. The investigation of the process of leaving school revealed that the problem was more complicated than the surface cause might suggest; there were often multiple causes leading drop-outs to abandon their education.
  2. In sum, although we cannot always establish the direction or consequences of causality between variables representing personal and family risk situations and behaviors and dropout rates, one can say that there is a close and important relationship that must be taken into account to better understand the reasons for dropout during USE. The third section uses different data and statistical techniques to investigate the possible causes behind dropout in USE, including personal and family factors, social and community, and general or macro factors.
  3. Alternatively the coefficient can be interpreted as indication that being female can have a significant effect on dropout when the household where the youth belongs is an Oportunidades beneficiary.
  4. In sum, although we cannot always establish the direction or consequences of causality between variables representing personal and family risk situations and behaviors and dropout rates, one can say that there is a close and important relationship that must be taken into account to better understand the reasons for dropout during USE.
  5. The association is maintained in the three estimates. In 2012, basic education coverage rates in Mexico exceeded 95 percent, a level similar to the observed even in developed countries.

The in-depth study of 32 drop-outs from four schools suggested that the cause of drop-out was predominantly finance for males and pregnancy for females. In a comparison of 32 drop-outs and 32 stay-ins, where age, gender, academic achievement and economic status were matched, few differences were found in family composition and school experience.

Parental divorce was common among both drop-outs and stay-ins. The investigation of the process of leaving school revealed that the problem was more complicated than the surface cause might suggest; there were often multiple causes leading drop-outs to abandon their education.

Although a cause might not be serious enough to effect drop-out by itself, many students were already on the verge of dropping out; thus very little pressure was necessary to cause them to discontinue their schooling.

Girls were more vulnerable than boys.

UCL Discovery

Girls in general showed fewer risk factors yet more girls than boys dropped out. In some cases girls would not have dropped out if they had not become pregnant. After leaving school, most drop-outs engaged in economic activities.

Education Research International

Only a few drop-outs wished to go back to school, and almost all wished to undertake an apprenticeship to lead to selfemployment. The occupational skills learned in apprenticeship were gender-specific, and women had fewer choices. Inequality was evident at every step; girls were disadvantaged in enrolment, retention, examination results, and in economic activities after leaving school. Education can be an effective tool for empowering the disadvantaged population.

However, schooling in rural Ghana was not always meeting the strategic needs of the disadvantaged.