Term papers writing service


Birth rates national income and infant mortality rates

Classification[ edit ] Infant mortality rate IMR is the number of deaths per 1,000 live births of children under one year of age. The rate for a given region is the number of children dying under one year of age, divided by the number of live births during the year, multiplied by 1,000.

Perinatal mortality is late fetal death 22 weeks gestation to birthor death of a newborn up to one week postpartum. Neonatal death is often attributed to inadequate access to basic medical care, during pregnancy and after delivery. The major contributors to postneonatal death are malnutrition, infectious disease, troubled pregnancy, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and problems with the home environment. In the United States, a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant mortality.

The determinants of low birth weight include socio-economic, psychological, behavioral and environmental factors. Congenial malformations[ edit ] Congenial malformations is a birth defect that babies are born with such as cleft lip and palate, down syndrome, and heart defects. Often times, this occurs when the mother consumes alcohol, but it can also be a cause of genetics or have an unknown cause. Malnutrition and infections diseases were the main cause of death in more undeveloped countries.

These birth defects mostly had to do with heart and central nervous system. In the 19th century, there was a decrease in the amount of infant deaths from heart diseases.

As compared with normal-birth-weight infants, those with low weight at birth are almost 40 times more likely to die in the neonatal period; for infants birth rates national income and infant mortality rates very low weight at birth the relative risk of neonatal death is almost 200 times greater. LBW may be the leading cause of infant deaths, and it is greatly preventable.

Although it is preventable, the solutions may not be the easiest but effective programs to help prevent LBW are a combination of health care, education, environment, mental modification and public policy, influencing a culture supporting lifestyle.

Reasons for this include teenage pregnancyincrease in pregnant mothers over the age of thirty-five, increase in the use of in-vitro fertilization which increases the risk of multiple births, obesity and diabetes. Also, women who do not have access to health care are less likely to visit a doctor, therefore increasing their risk of delivering prematurely. Sudden infant death syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS is a syndrome where an infant dies in their sleep with no reasoning behind it.

Even with a complete autopsy, no one has been able to figure out what causes this disease. This disease is more common in Western countries. Scientist have also discovered three causes within a model they created called, the contemporary triple risk model. This model states that three conditions such as the mother smoking while pregnant, the age of the infant, and stress referring to conditions such as overheating, prone sleeping, co-sleeping, and head covering.

Malnutrition in children Malnutrition or undernutrition is defined as inadequate intake of nourishment, such as proteins and vitamins, which adversely affects the growth, energy and development of people all over the world. It is estimated that about 3. Adverse effects of malnutrition[ edit ] Children suffering from malnutrition face adverse physical effects such as stunting, wasting, or being overweight.

In Africa the number of stunted children has risen, while Asia holds the most children under 5 suffering from wasting. Micronutrient deficiency such as iron has been linked to children with anemia, fatigue, and poor brain development. Newborns can acquire infections during birth from bacteria that are present in their mother's reproductive tract.

The mother may not be aware of the infection, or she may have an untreated pelvic inflammatory disease or sexually transmitted disease. These bacteria can move birth rates national income and infant mortality rates the vaginal canal into the amniotic sac surrounding the baby. Maternal blood-borne infection is another route of bacterial infection from mother to baby. Neonatal infection is also more likely with the premature rupture of the membranes PROM of the amniotic sac.

Measles is the fifth-largest cause of childhood mortality. A few public health measures used to lower levels of iron deficiency anemia include iodize salt or drinking water, and include vitamin A and multivitamin supplements into a mother's diet.

Statistics for Health > Infant mortality rate

Water contaminated with various pathogens houses a host of parasitic and microbial infections. Infectious disease and parasites are carried via water pollution from animal wastes.

For example, the inaccessibility of clean water exacerbates poor sanitation conditions.

Infant mortality

Short-term and long-term effects of ambient air pollution are associated with an increased mortality rate, including infant mortality. Air pollution is consistently associated with post neonatal mortality due to respiratory effects and sudden infant death syndrome. Specifically, air pollution is highly associated with SIDs in the United States during the post-neonatal stage. Women who are exposed to greater air pollution on a daily basis who are pregnant should be closely watched by their doctors, as well as after the baby is born.

Babies who live in areas with less air pollution have a greater chance of living until their first birthday. As expected, babies who live in environments with more air pollution are at greater risk for infant mortality. Areas that have higher air pollution also have a greater chance of having a higher population density, higher crime rates and lower income levels, all of which can lead to higher infant mortality rates.

Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas that does great harm especially to infants because of their immature respiratory system.

Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)

According to the American Journal of Public Health, "in 2006, more than 42 000 Americans died of second hand smoke-attributable diseases, including more than 41 000 adults and nearly 900 infants. In synthesis of this research, it has been observed that "African American infant mortality remains elevated due to the social arrangements that exist between groups and the lifelong experiences responding to the resultant power dynamics of these arrangements.

Parker Dominguez at the University of Southern California has made some headway in determining the reasoning behind this, claiming black women are more prone to psychological stress than other women of different races in the United States.

Stress is a lead factor in inducing labor in pregnant women, and therefore high levels of stress during pregnancy could lead to premature births that have the potential to be fatal for the infant. Trauma in early development has extreme impact over the course of a lifetime and is a significant contributor to infant mortality. Developing organs are fragile.

Income and child mortality in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

birth rates national income and infant mortality rates When an infant is shaken, beaten, strangled, or raped the impact is exponentially more destructive than when the same abuse occurs in a fully developed body. Studies estimate that 1—2 per 100,000 U. Unfortunately, it is reasonable to assume that these birth rates national income and infant mortality rates under represent actual mortality. The younger an infant is, the more dangerous the maltreatment.

Between 1912 and 1915, the Children's Bureau in the United States examined data across eight cities and nearly 23,000 live births. They discovered that lower incomes tend to correlate with higher infant mortality. Differences between races were also apparent.

A recent study by The Economist showed that economic slowdowns reduce the amount of air pollution, which results in a lower infant mortality rate. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the recession's impact on air quality is estimated to have saved around 1,300 US babies. Disparities due to socioeconomic factors have been exacerbated by advances in medical technology. Developed countries, most notably the United States, have seen a divergence between those living in poverty who cannot afford medical advanced resources, leading to an increased chance of infant mortality, and others.

Having a war taking place where a woman is planning on having a baby is not only stressful on the mother and foetus, but also has several detrimental effects. However, many other significant factors influence infant mortality rates in war-torn areas. Health care systems in developing countries in the midst of war often collapse.

Attaining basic medical supplies and care becomes increasingly difficult. Preventable diseases can quickly become epidemic given the medical conditions during war. Transport of aid becomes significantly more difficult in times of war. In most situations the average weight of a population will drop substantially. During the Yugoslav Wars in Bosnia the number of premature babies born increased and the average birth weight decreased.

Women who become pregnant as a result of war rape face even more significant challenges in bearing a healthy child. Studies suggest that women who experience sexual violence before or during pregnancy are more likely to experience infant death in their children. Many women who became pregnant by rape in Bosnia were isolated from their hometowns making life after childbirth exponentially more difficult.

This tells us that not only is it extremely necessary for every child to get these vaccines to prevent serious diseases, but there is no reason to believe that if your child does receive an immunization that it will have any effect on their risk of SIDS. Developing nations with democratic governments tend to be more responsive to public opinion, social movementsand special interest groups for issues like infant mortality.

In contrast, non-democratic governments are more interested in corporate issues and less so in health issues. Democratic status effects the dependency a nation has towards its economic state via export, investments from multinational corporations and international lending institutions.

A nation's internal impact is highly influenced by its position in the global economy and has adverse effects on the survival of children in developing countries.

The dependency of developing nations can lead to a reduce rate of economic growth, increase income inequality inter- and intra-national, and adversely affects the wellbeing of a nation's population.

  1. Summary of meta-analysis on unadjusted and adjusted elasticity. In all cases, a 3-year average of vital statistics around the census dates was used.
  2. Dietary change in antebellum America. At stage two, the predicted value of child deaths from stage one is used in a regression with births i.
  3. Finally, at each census date there was a positive zero-order correlation between the child mortality index and fertility as measured by average parity.
  4. Collecting the accurate statistics of infant mortality rate could be an issue in some rural communities in developing countries. The covariates adjusted for the elasticity Box 1 and the measure of precision of this estimate were recorded.
  5. A nation's internal impact is highly influenced by its position in the global economy and has adverse effects on the survival of children in developing countries. These fascinating studies include some data on breastfeeding, one piece of evidence pertinent to the influence of infant mortality on fertility.

A collective cooperation between economic countries plays a role in development policies in the poorer, peripheral, countries of the world. There are circumstances where a number of developing countries to breed a culture where situations of infant mortality such as favoring male babies over female babies are the norm.

Cultural influences and lifestyle habits in the United States can account for some deaths in infants throughout the years. According to the Journal of the American Medical Association "the post neonatal mortality risk 28 to 364 days was highest among continental Puerto Ricans" compared to babies of the non-Hispanic race.

Examples of this include teenage pregnancy, obesity, diabetes and smoking. All are possible causes of premature births, which constitute the second highest cause of infant mortality. The difference between male and female infant mortality rates have been dependent on environmental, social, and economic conditions. More specifically, males are biologically more vulnerable to infections and conditions associated with prematurity and development.

Before 1970, the reasons for male infant mortality were due to infections, and chronic degenerative diseases. However, since 1970, certain cultures emphasizing males has led to a decrease in the infant mortality gap between males and females. Also, medical advances have resulted in a growing number of male infants surviving at higher rates than females due to the initial high infant mortality rate of males.

Males, biologically, have lower chances of surviving infancy in comparison to female babies. As infant mortality rates saw a decrease on a global scale, the gender most affected by infant mortality changed from males experiences a biological disadvantage, to females facing a societal disadvantage.

A country's ethnic composition, homogeneous versus heterogeneous, can explain social attitudes and practices. Heterogeneous level is a strong predictor in explaining infant mortality. Births spaced at least three years apart from one another are associated with the lowest rate of birth rates national income and infant mortality rates. The longer the interval between births, the lower the risk for having any birthing complications, and infant, childhood and maternal mortality.

Also, women who are already small in stature tend to deliver smaller than average babies, perpetuating a cycle of being underweight. Improvements such as better sanitation practices have proven to be effective in reducing public heath outbreaks and rates of disease among mothers and children. Efforts to increase a households' income through direct assistance or economic opportunities decreases mortality rates, as families possess some means for more food and access to healthcare.