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An overview of the geography politics and laws of greece

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The largest, Spartacontrolled about 300 square miles of territory; the smallest had just a few hundred people. However, by the dawn of the Archaic period in the seventh century B.

They all had economies that were based on agriculture, not trade: Also, most had overthrown their hereditary kings, or basileus, and were ruled by a small number of wealthy aristocrats.

  1. Work begins on the Parthenon in Athens, then at the height of its glory 431-404.
  2. As a city outgrew its local water supply, water was brought in from neighbouring hills by means of channels cut in the rocks, and clay pipes.
  3. Despite the economic turmoil, Greek GDP did not contract as sharply as feared, boosted in part by a strong tourist season. The Peloponnesian league was founded much earlier than the Delian, in the 7th century BC, and endured much longer.
  4. The finest buildings the Greeks erected were their temples; and the most famous of these is the Parthenon, in Athens.
  5. The law code of Gortyn , which is itself the revised version of an older code, is the only one that comes close to being fully preserved.

These people monopolized political power. For example, they refused to let ordinary people serve on councils or assemblies. They also monopolized the best farmland, and some even claimed to be descended from the gods.

Outline of Greece

Land was the most important source of wealth in the city-states; it was also, obviously, in finite supply. The pressure of population growth pushed many men away from their home poleis and into sparsely populated areas around Greece and the Aegean. By the end of the seventh century B. Each of these poleis was an independent city-state.

Ancient Greece

In this way, the colonies of the Archaic period were different from other colonies we are familiar with: The people who lived there were not ruled by or bound to the city-states from which they came. The new poleis were self-governing and self-sufficient.

The Rise of the Tyrants As time passed and their populations grew, many of these agricultural city-states began to produce consumer goods such as pottery, cloth, wine and metalwork. Trade in these goods made some people—usually not members of the old aristocracy—very wealthy. These people resented the unchecked power of the oligarchs and banded together, sometimes with the aid of heavily-armed soldiers called hoplites, to put new leaders in charge. These leaders were known as tyrants.

Some tyrants turned out to be just as autocratic as the oligarchs they replaced, while others proved to be enlightened leaders. Pheidon of Argos established an orderly system of weights and measures, for instance, while Theagenes of Megara brought running water to his city.

However, their rule did not last: The colonial migrations of the Archaic period had an important effect on its art and literature: Sculptors created kouroi and korai, carefully proportioned human figures that served as memorials to the dead. Scientists and mathematicians made progress too: Anaximandros devised a theory of gravity; Xenophanes wrote about his discovery of fossils; and Pythagoras of Kroton discovered his famous theorem.

The economic, political, technological and artistic developments of the Archaic period readied the Greek city-states for the monumental changes of the next few centuries.

  1. Bankers operated from long tables set up in the agora, making loans at very high rates of interest. A city-state was a major city and the surrounding areas.
  2. Here, the boy would learn to read and write, and do arithmetic. Under intense pressure from the EU and international market participants, the government accepted a bailout program that called on Athens to cut government spending, decrease tax evasion, overhaul the civil-service, health-care, and pension systems, and reform the labor and product markets.
  3. Both private dikai and graphai had to be initiated by summoning the defendant who might be under arrest to the magistrate having jurisdiction in the matter and by filing a written complaint with the latter, who would subject it to a preliminary examination anakrisis. A victorious plaintiff in a private lawsuit had to enforce the judgment himself by attaching property of the defendant.