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An overview of the abortion in the western civilization and culture in 20th century

Education in the 20th century Social and historical background International wars, together with an intensification of internal stresses and conflicts among social, racial, and ideological groups, characterized the 20th century and had profound effects on education. Some of the changes that had far-reaching effects were the rapidly spreading prosperity but widening gaps between rich and poor, an immense increase in world population but a declining birth rate in Western countries, the growth of large-scale industry and its dependence on science and technological advancement, the increasing power of both organized labour and international business, and the enormous influence of both technical and sociopsychological advances in communication, especially as utilized in mass media.

Other pivotal changes included challenges to accepted values, such as those supported by religion; changes in social relations, especially toward versions of group and individual equality; and an explosion of knowledge affecting paradigms as well as particular information.

  1. Yet homosexuality between males was a crime in Great Britain until the 1960s - though lesbianism was not outlawed. Although abortion is extensively and rather openly practiced in many primitive societies, few groups give it unqualified approval.
  2. In the case of Gandhism, it is not the decomposition of the soul but its elevation which is transferred from India to the Black experience. Globalization and the Terrorist Threat Wilmington.
  3. Westerners themselves saw Gandhi's message as the nearest approximation of the Christian ethic of the first half of the twentieth century. In 1986 my television series The Africans.

These and other changes marked a century of social and political swings toward a more dynamic and less categorical resolution. The institutional means of handling this uncertain world were to accept more diversity while maintaining basic forms and to rely on management efficiency to ensure practical outcomes.

The two World Wars weakened the military and political might of the larger European powers.

  • Yet when he was released he not only emphasized the policy of reconciliation -- he often went beyond the call of duty;
  • Can people share Muslim values without sharing the Muslim religion?

One consequence of this was a great increase in the quantity of education provided. Attempts were made to eradicate illiteracy, and colleges and schools were built everywhere.

The growing affluence of masses of the population in high-income areas in North America and Europe brought about, particularly after World War IIa tremendous demand for secondary and higher education. Most children stayed at school until 16, 17, or even 18 years of age, and a substantial fraction spent at least two years at college.

  • The Westernization of the world has been part and parcel of the phenomenon which we have come to refer to as "globalization";
  • The combination of American energy and European legacy gave the idea of Western civilization both power and legitimacy in both America and Europe;
  • Global Triumph or Western Twilight?
  • Similarly, the post-modern era can also be seen as the post-Western era, with most of the Western traditions not only rejected by non-Western societies, but also abandoned by the elites of Western societies;
  • Major intellectual movements Influence of psychology and other fields on education The attempt to apply scientific method to the study of education dates back to the German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbart , who called for the application of psychology to the art of teaching.

The number of universities in many countries doubled or trebled between 1950 and 1970, and the elaboration of the tertiary level continued thereafter.

This growth was sustained partly by the industrial requirements of modern scientific technology. New methods, processes, and machines were continually introduced. Old skills became irrelevant; new industries sprang up.

In addition, the amount of scientific—as distinct from merely technical—knowledge grew continually. Researchers, skilled workers, and high-level professionals were increasingly in demand. The processing of information underwent revolutionary change. The adoption of modern methods of food production diminished the need for agricultural workers, who headed for the cities. Urbanizationhowever, brought problems: The poorest remained in those centres, and it became difficult to provide adequate education.

The radical change to large numbers of disrupted families, where the norm was a single working parent, affected the urban poor extensively but in all cases raised an expectation of additional school services.

Historical attitudes to abortion

Differences in family background, together with the cultural mix partly occasioned by change of immigration patterns, required teaching behaviour and content appropriate to a more heterogeneous school population. Major intellectual movements Influence of psychology and other fields on education The attempt to apply scientific method to the study of education dates back to the German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbartwho called for the application of psychology to the art of teaching.

But not until the end of the 19th century, when the German psychologist Wilhelm Max Wundt established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in 1879, were serious efforts made to separate psychology from philosophy.

William Jamesoften considered the father of American psychology of educationbegan about 1874 to lay the groundwork for his psychophysiological laboratory, which was officially founded at Harvard University in 1891. Interests must be awakened and broadened as the natural starting points of instruction.

They asked the teacher to help educate heroic individuals who would project daring visions of the future and work courageously to realize them. Thorndike is credited with the introduction of modern educational psychologywith the publication of Educational Psychology in 1903.

  • But it is almost certain that capital punishment even in the US will one day be regarded as a violation of human rights;
  • Abortion rights faced restriction in 2003 after the US House of Representatives and the US Senate voted to ban late-term 'partial birth' abortions;
  • The old formal empires of the West have unleashed demographic counter-penetration;
  • But in addition to historical and cultural relativism, there is relativism in practice, or comparative empirical performance;
  • Justice Macnaghten put it like this;
  • Because of its universalist pretensions and illusions, its adherents have made the peoples of the West undiscriminating about other cultures and unconfident about their own.

Thorndike attempted to apply the methods of exact science to the practice of psychology. James and Thorndike, together with the American philosopher John Deweyhelped to clear away many of the fantastic notions once held about the successive steps involved in the development of mental functions from birth to maturity.

A cross-cultural history of abortion.

Eminent researchers in the field advanced knowledge of behaviour modification, child developmentand motivation. They studied learning theories ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning and technical models to social theories and open humanistic varieties. Besides the specific applications of measurement, counselingand clinical psychologypsychology contributed to education through studies of cognitioninformation processingthe technology of instruction, and learning styles. After much controversy about nature versus nurture and about qualitative versus quantitative methods, Jungianphenomenological, and ethnographic methods took their place alongside psychobiological explanations to help educationists understand the place of hereditygeneral environment, and school in development and learning.

The relationship between educational theory and other fields of study became increasingly close. Social science was used to study interactions and speech to discover what was actually happening in a classroom.

Philosophy of science led educational theorists to attempt to understand paradigmatic shifts in knowledge. Both social philosophy and critical sociology continued to elaborate the themes of social control and oppression as embedded in educational institutions.

  1. Similarly, Greece contributed the idea of liberty, and Rome, that of law.
  2. But there were popular Muslim demonstrations against Rushdie from Kaduna to Karachi. Yet, examples exist from both preindustrial and modern societies where the decision to have an abortion is not made by the woman alone but is influenced either wholly or in part by political or cultural factors.
  3. Antithetical to the classical spirit are both the democratic spirit and the commercial spirit, spirits which were greatly strengthened by the Enlightenment.
  4. There are new mosques from Munich to Marseilles.

In a world of social as well as intellectual change, there were necessarily new ethical questions—such as those dealing with abortionbiological experimentation, and child rights—which placed new demands on education and required new methods of teaching.

Essentialists stressed those human experiences that they believed were indispensable to people of all time periods. Closely related to essentialism was what was called humanistic, or liberal, education in its traditional form. Although many intellectuals argued the case, Robert M.

Social and historical background

Hutchinspresident and then chancellor of the University of Chicago from 1929 to 1951, and Mortimer J. Adlerprofessor of the philosophy of law at the same institution, were its most recognized proponents.

Adler argued for the restoration of an Aristotelian viewpoint in education. Maintaining that there are unchanging verities, he sought a return to education fixed in content and aim. He and his colleagues urged a return to the cultivation of the intellect. Opposed to the fundamental tenets of pragmatism was the philosophy that underlay all Roman Catholic education. Theocentric in its viewpoint, Catholic Scholasticism had God as its unchanging basis of action.

It insisted that without such a basis there can be no real aim to any type of living, and hence there can be no real purpose in any system of education. New foundations The three concerns that guided the development of 20th-century education were the child, science, and society. The foundations for this trilogy were laid by so-called progressive education movements supporting child-centred education, scientific-realist education, and social reconstruction.