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An introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams

  • The Johns Hopkins University Press;
  • Freud and his self-analysis;
  • Even the psychological construction behaves as if it would come together, which gives me immense pleasure;
  • Psychological origins of Freud's works;
  • Irma's Injection hypertext version We now know from the complete Fliess correspondence Masson, 1985 that the "Irma" dream was not the one originally intended to illustrate the method.

A few of the chief events in his external life are also included in it. Unfortunately, however, the work was not carried out very systematically, for the additions themselves were not dated and thereby much of the advantage of the plan was sacrificed.

  • Freud and his father;
  • My brother made the acute ovservation that the photographer must know you; this is actually so, as you told me;
  • Journal of the History of Medicine, 24, 37-43.

In subsequent editions a return was made to the old, undifferentiated single volume. By far the greater number of additions dealing with any single subject are those concerned with symbolism in dreams. These were very considerably expanded in the third editionwhile the original passage in Chapter VI still remained unaltered. A reorganization was evidently overdue, and an introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams the fourth edition an entirely new Section on symbolism was introduced into Chapter VI, and into this the material on the subject that had accumulated in Chapter V was now transplanted, together with a quantity of entirely fresh material.

No changes in the structure of the book were made in later editions, though much further matter was added. There remain the bibliographies. The first edition contained a list of some eighty books, to the great majority of which Freud refers in the text.

This was left unchanged in the second and third editions, but in the third a second list was added, of some forty books written since Thereafter both lists began to increase rapidly, till in the eighth edition the first list contained some works and the second over Furthermore, quite a number of works quoted by Freud in the text were not to be found in either list.

An effort has been made to indicate, with dates, every alteration of substance introduced into the book since its first issue. An effort has been made to indicate, with daates, every alteration of substance introduced into the book since its first issue. Throughout the succeeding editions, Freud was more concerned to add material, rather than to cut anything out. The first bibliography contains a list of every work actually referred to in the text or footnotes or in the introductory sections of the present volume.

The second contains all the works in the Gesammelte Werke pre list not actually quoted by Freud. It has seemed worth while to print this, since no other comparably full bibliography of the older literature on dreams is easily accessible.

Index of this post

Writings afterapart from those actually quoted and so in the first bibliography, have been disregarded. A warning must, however, be issued in regard to both these lists. Investigation revealed a very high proportion of errors in the previous German bibliographies. These were corrected wherever possible in the Standard Edition, and a certain number more have been eliminated in the present edition; but quite a number of the entries have proved so far untraceable, and these which arc distinguished by an asterisk must be regarded as suspect.

Editorial additions, which include footnotes, references for quotations, and a large number of internal cross-references, arc printed in square brackets. Great attention has had, of course, to be paid to the details of the wording of the text of dreams. Where the English rendering strikes the reader as unusually stiff, he may assume that the stiffness has been imposed by some verbal necessity determined by the interpretation that is to follow.

Where there arc inconsistencies between different versions of the text of the same dream, he may assume that there are parallel inconsistencies in the original. These verbal difficulties culminate in the fairly frequent instances in which an interpretation depends entirely upon a pun.

There are three methods of dealing with such situations. The translator can omit the dream entirely, or he can replace it by another parallel dream, whether derived from his own experience or fabricated ad hoc. These two methods have been the ones adopted in the main in the earlier translations of the book. But there are serious objections to them.

We must remember that we arc dealing with a an introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams classic. What we want to hear about arc the examples chosen by Freud — not by someone else. Accordingly the present translator has adopted the pedantic and tiresome third alternative of keeping the original German pun and laboriously explaining it in a square bracket or footnote. Any amusement that might be got out of it completely evaporates in the process.

  • But I was precluded from using the latter material by the fact that in its case the dream-processes were subject to an undesirable complication owing to the added presence of neurotic features;
  • This treatment had ended in a partial success; the patient was relieved of her hysterical anxiety but did not lose all her somatic symptoms;
  • This most-discussed on all Freud's dreams has evoked a vast secondary literature.

But that, unfortunately, is a sacrifice that has to be made. The theories expressed in it, however, had been developing, and the material accumulating, for a considerable time before this. He is discussing the fact that neurotic patients seem to be under a necessity to bring into association with one another any ideas that happen to be simultaneously present in their minds. For several weeks I found myself obliged to exchange my usual bed for a harder one, in which I had more numerous or more vivid dreams, or in which, it may be, I was unable to reach the normal depth of sleep.

In the first quarter of an hour after waking I remembered all the dreams I had had during the night, and I took the trouble to write them down and try to solve them.

I succeeded in tracing all these dreams back to two factors: The senseless and contradictory character of the dreams could be traced back to the uncontrolled ascendancy of this latter factor. The Project for a Scientific Psychology: It already includes many important elements which re-appear in the present work, such as 1 an introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams wish-fulfilling character of dreams, 2 their hallucinatory character, 3 the regressive functioning of the mind in hallucinations and dreams, 4 the fact that the state of sleep involves motor paralysis, 5 the nature of the mechanism of displacement in dreams and 5 the similarity between the mechanisms of dreams and of neurotic symptoms.

Although it is not possible to enter here into any detailed discussion of the subject, [Footnote below] the crux of the position can, however, be indicated quite simply.

According to this theory, neurophysiology, and consequently psychology, was governed by purely chemico-physical laws. This doctrine laid it down that the functional unit of the central nervous system was a distinct cell, having no direct anatomical continuity with adjacent cells. As time passed, his interest was gradually diverted from neurological and theoretical on to psychological and clinical problems, and he eventually abandoned the entire scheme.

And when some years later, in the seventh chapter of the present book, he took the theoretical problem up once more — though he certainly never gave up his belief that ultimately a physical groundwork for psychology would be established [Footnote 1: Moreover, some of the detailed accounts of psychical processes given in the seventh chapter owe much to their physiological forerunners and can be more easily understood by reference to them.

Both the manuscript and the proofs were regularly submitted to Fliess by Freud for his criticism. He seems to have had considerable influence on the final shape of the book, and to have been responsible for the omission of certain passages, evidently on grounds of discretion. But the severest criticisms came from the author himself and these were directed principally against the style and literary form. Somewhere hidden within me I too have some fragmentary sense of form, some appreciation of beauty as a species of perfection; and the involved sentences of my book on dreams, bolstered an introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams on indirect phrases and with sidelong glances at their subject-matter, have gravely affronted some ideal within me.

And I am scarcely wrong in regarding this lack of form as a sign of an incomplete mastery of the material. For psychological investigation shows that the dream is the first member of a class of abnormal psychical phenomena of which further members, such as hysterical phobias, obsessions and delusions, are bound for practical reasons to be a matter of concern to physicians.

As will be seen in the sequel, dreams can make no such claim to practical importance; but their theoretical value as a paradigm is on the other hand proportionately greater. Anyone who has failed to explain the origin of dream-images can scarcely hope to understand phobias, obsessions or delusions or to bring a therapeutic influence to bear on them.

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But the same correlation that is responsible for the importance of the subject must also bear the blame for the deficiencies of the present work. The broken threads which so frequently interrupt my presentation are nothing less than the many points of contact between the problem of the formation of dreams and the more comprehensive problems of psycho pathology.

These cannot be treated here, but, if time and strength allow and further material comes to hand, will form the subject of later communications. The difficulties of presentation have been further increased by the peculiarities of the material which I have had to use to illustrate the interpreting of dreams.

It will become plain in the course of the work itself why it is that none of the dreams already reported in the an introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams of the subject or collected from unknown sources could be of any use for my purposes. The only dreams open to my choice were my own and those of my patients undergoing psycho-analytic treatment. But I was precluded from using the latter material by the fact that in its case the dream-processes were subject to an undesirable complication owing to the added presence of neurotic features.

But if I was to report my own dreams, it inevitably followed that I should have to reveal to the public gaze more of the intimacies of my mental life than I liked, or than is normally necessary for any writer who is a man of science and not a poet.

Such was the painful but unavoidable necessity; and I have submitted to it rather than totally abandon the possibility of giving the evidence for my psychological findings. Naturally, however, I have been unable to resist the temptation of taking the edge off some of my indiscretions by omissions and substitutions.

But whenever this has happened, the value of my instance has been very definitely diminished. I can only express a hope that readers of this book will put themselves in my difficult situation and treat me with indulgence, and further, that anyone who finds any sort of reference to himself in my dreams may be willing to grant me the right of freedom of thought — in my dream-life, if nowhere else.

Preface to the Second Edition pfl p If within ten years of the publication of this book which is very far from being an easy one to read a second edition is called for, this is not due to the interest taken in it by the professional circles to whom my original preface was addressed. My psychiatric colleagues seem to have taken no trouble to overcome the initial bewilderment created by my new approach to dreams. An introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams professional philosophers have become accustomed to polishing off the problems of dream-life which they treat as a mere appendix to conscious states in a few sentences — and usually in the same ones; and they have evidently failed to notice that we have something here from which a number of inferences can be drawn that are bound to transform our psychological theories.

The attitude adopted by reviewers in the scientific periodicals could only lead one to suppose that my work was doomed to be sunk into complete silence; while the small group of gallant supporters, who practise medical psycho-analysis under my guidance and who follow my example in interpreting dreams and make use of their interpretations in treating neurotics, would never have exhausted the first edition of the book.

Thus it is that I feel indebted to a wider circle of educated and curious-minded readers, whose interest has led me to take up once more after nine years this difficult, but in many respects fundamental, work.

  1. Naturally, however, I have been unable to resist the temptation of taking the edge off some of my indiscretions by omissions and substitutions.
  2. The one-eyed doctor, Sigismund Freud.
  3. Take the theme of the perilous journey.
  4. Freud Freud made his dreams come true, see Jones, Sulloway. Sigmund Freud's auto biography.
  5. The dangerous journey itself has three common motifs. Freud quotes this phrase again in the concluding chapter of The Interpretation of Dreams, following the claim.

I am glad to say that I have found little to change in it. Here and there I have inserted some new material, added some fresh points of detail derived from my increased experience, and at some few points recast my statements. But the essence of what I have written about dreams and their interpretation, as well as about the psychological theorems to be deduced from them — all this remains unaltered: Anyone who is acquainted with my other writings on the aetiology and mechanism of the psycho-neuroses will know that I have never put forward inconclusive opinions as though they were established facts, and that I have always sought to modify my statements so that they may keep in step with my advancing knowledge.

In the sphere of dream-life I have been able to leave my original assertions unchanged. During the long years in which I have been working at the problems of the neuroses I have often been in doubt and some times been shaken in my convictions.

At such times it has always been the Interpretation of Dreams that has given me back my certainty. It is thus a sure instinct which has led my many scientific opponents to refuse to follow me more especially in my researches upon dreams. An equal durability and power to withstand any far-reaching alterations during the process of revision has been shown by the material of the book, consisting as it does of dreams of my own which an introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams for the most part been overtaken or made valueless by the march of events and by which I illustrated the rules of dream-interpretation.

For this book has a further subjective significance for me personally — a significance which I only grasped after I had completed it. Having discovered that this was so, I felt unable to obliterate the traces of the experience.

To my readers, however, it will be a matter of indifference upon what particular material they learn to appreciate the importance of dreams and how to interpret them. Wherever I have found it impossible to incorporate some essential addition into an introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams original context, I have indicated its more recent date by enclosing it in square brackets.

This new turn of events may please me; but just as formerly I was unwilling to regard the neglect of my book by readers as evidence of its worthlessness, so I cannot claim that the interest which is now being taken in it is a proof of its excellence. Even the Interpretation of Dreams has not been left untouched by the advance of scientific knowledge.

When I wrote it inmy theory of sexuality was not yet in existence and the analysis of the more complicated forms of psycho-neurosis was only just beginning. It was my hope that dream-interpretation would help to make possible the psychological analysis of the neuroses; since then a deeper understanding of neuroses has reacted in turn upon our view of dreams.

The theory of dream-interpretation has itself developed further in a direction on which insufficient stress had been laid in the first edition of this book. My own experience, as well as the works of Wilhelm Stekel and others, have since taught me to form a truer estimate of the extent and importance of symbolism in dreams or rather in unconscious thinking.

Thus in the course of these years much has accumulated which demands attention. I have endeavoured to take these innovations into account by making numerous interpolations in the text and by additional footnotes. I may even venture to prophesy in what other directions later editions of this book — if any should be needed — will differ from the present one.

They will have on the one hand to afford a closer contact with the copious material presented in imaginative writing, in myths, in linguistic usage and in folklore; an introduction to freuds interpretation of dreams on the other hand they will have to deal in greater detail than has here been possible with the relations of dreams to neuroses and mental diseases.

Herr Otto Rank has given me valuable assistance in selecting the additional matter and has been entirely responsible for correcting the proofs.