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A look at press rights in china

Human rights: What is China accused of?

Under the leadership of President Xi Jinping, who will remain in power until 2022 and possibly beyond, the outlook for fundamental human rights, including freedoms of expression, assembly, association and religion, remains dire. China made modest improvements in a few areas in 2016. Most were held in secret and not allowed to communicate with their families or lawyers of their choosing. The secrecy surrounding these detentions stood in stark contrast to the aggressive state media campaign to smear the detainees, many of them well-known for their years of activism.

In the ethnic minority regions of Xinjiang and Tibet, Beijing continued its highly repressive rule, curtailing political activity and many peaceful expressions of ethnic and religious identity.

Authorities also moved to further limit freedom of expression. In November, the government passed a Cybersecurity Law, which will strangle online freedom and anonymity, and further clamped down on media outlets for reporting that departs from the party line.

Authorities also issued multiple directives to tighten control over the internet, which has long been a beacon of hope as a relatively free public space, despite online censorship and surveillance. The Chinese government continues to lead the world in the number of people executed, with 46 crimes eligible for the death penalty. December 6, 2016 Video Video: Rare Story From Inside China's Secret Detention System The Chinese government should immediately abolish a secretive detention system used to coerce confessions from corruption suspects.

Human Rights Defenders As noted above, more than 16 human rights lawyers and activists were detained in a nationwide sweep of rights advocates starting in July 2015. In August 2016, after days of closed trials, a Tianjin court handed down heavy sentences to Beijing Fengrui Law Firm director Zhou Shifeng and veteran activist Hu Shigen, and gave suspended sentences to two other activists.

  • In February, President Xi visited three major state media outlets and called on them to pledge absolute loyalty to the party;
  • The rate of posts that are deleted in Chinese social media is not uniform across the entire country; provinces in the far west and north, such as Tibet and Qinghai, have much higher rates of deletion 53 percent than eastern provinces and cities ca;
  • Manual intervention can be seen not only in the deletion of sensitive messages containing text alone, but also in those containing subversive images and videos as well Larmer, 2011;
  • The full lexicon has 255,126 unique Chinese terms;
  • Twitter and Facebook were blocked in China in July 2009 after riots in the western province of Xinjiang Blanchard, 2009;
  • It has been formatted to fit The Party's view of the world.

Although authorities released some detainees on bail, including lawyer Wang Yu and her husband, legal advocate Bao Longjun, their lawyers and close friends have not been able to contact them.

Most of the 16 remained in detention awaiting trial at time of writing. Some activists who had previously been able to carry out advocacy now find themselves behind bars. In September, a Beijing court convicted rights lawyer Xia Lin on dubious extortion charges and sentenced him to 12 years in prison. Official lawyers associations in January cancelled the license of Shandong lawyer Liu Shuqing and in May a look at press rights in china to renew the license of lawyer Liu Xiaoyuan.

Both had supported lawyers held in the July 2015 crackdown. Authorities continued to tighten their grip over independent groups. In January, a Swedish national who heads a nongovernmental organization NGO that provides funding to human rights lawyers, Peter Dahlin, was detained for 23 days, forced to confess on television, and then deported.

In September, a new charity law went into effect; it may further limit fundraising by and strengthen state control over civil society. Freedom of Expression Freedom of expression, already severely restricted through censorship and punishments, a look at press rights in china hit particularly hard in 2016. Few other media stories broke through official censorship to generate nationwide discussion or policy change. In February, President Xi visited three major state media outlets and called on them to pledge absolute loyalty to the party.

Also in March, Guangxi police detained He Linxia, director of Guangxi Normal University Press, which is known for publishing books focused on politics. In the same month, Beijing authorities sacked or demoted the editors of Yanhuang Chunqiu, a moderate history magazine with the backing of relatively liberal Party elders, leading to its closure. In October, authorities closed the influential intellectual website Consensus, 21ccom.

Hong Kong Under its Basic Law, Hong Kong is guaranteed autonomy in all matters other than foreign affairs and defense, and enjoys an independent judiciary and other civil liberties. In practice Beijing is increasingly encroaching on rights to political participation, expression, and assembly in the territory. Between October and December 2015, five staff members of the Causeway Bay Bookstore, which publishes and sells books in Hong Kong about mainland politics, went missing.

One, Swedish national Gui Minhai, was disappeared from Thailand. Another British national, Lee Po, was disappeared from Hong Kong, though his travel documents had remained at home. In March, four of five disappeared booksellers reappeared in China, confessed on television to smuggling banned books, and were released. Swedish national Gui Minhai remains detained incommunicado in an unknown location. The central Chinese government has yet to explain whether, and under what circumstances, mainland security forces are operating in the territory, and Hong Kong authorities have failed to press for such information.

The charges stem from their leadership of a peaceful sit-in that triggered the 79-day pro-democracy Umbrella Movement in 2014. While all three received light sentences, such as community service, their prosecution indicated a worrying trend, as peaceful protest leaders previously had rarely been prosecuted in the territory. In August, a spokesperson for the Education Bureau warned teachers that they could lose their professional qualifications for advocating independence. In September, voters turned out in record numbers for the LegCo elections, sending to office six individuals who support Hong Kong self-determination.

It marked the first time Chinese authorities had issued a ruling on the Basic Law while legal proceedings were ongoing in Hong Kong. Xinjiang Authorities made no moves in 2016 to lift restrictions on fundamental human rights and end pervasive ethnic and religious discrimination in Xinjiang, home to 10 million predominantly Muslim Uyghurs and an increasing number of Han Chinese migrants. Opposition to central and local government policies has been expressed in peaceful protests but also through bombings and other violent attacks.

The Chinese government claims that it faces terrorism in the region and conducts counterterror operations there. However, details about protests, violence, and terrorism, and counterterrorism operations are scant, with few independent sources of information there. The requirement adds to already stringent restrictions on foreign travel for Xinjiang residents. Local government authorities again banned civil servants, students, and teachers from fasting and instructed restaurants to stay open during the Muslim holiday of Ramadan.

In June, a group of 10 Uighur students in Guangzhou No.

In October, he was awarded the prestigious Martin Ennals human rights award. Tibet Tibetans continue to face routine denial of basic freedoms of speech, assembly, and movement. The 13th Five Year Plan began in 2016, and the TAR set ambitious goals for massive infrastructure construction and urban development; Tibetan areas of Qinghai and Sichuan provinces are also slated for greater resource extraction.

Many reported public protests were against rural land grabs, including one in Gansu which security forces suppressed in May. The Tibetan writers Shokjang and Lomik were given three and seven-and-a-half year sentences, respectively, and Lu Konchok Gyatso and Tashi Wangchuk remained in custody at time of writing, one for planning to publish a book and the other for speaking to the New York Times about the loss of Tibetan language teaching. At time of writing, two more Tibetans had self-immolated in 2016, both in Sichuan.

At least four Tibetans were believed to have died in custody, including Kandze nun Yeshe Lhakdron, who has not been seen since her arrest in 2008.

Dissidents Who Have Suffered for Human Rights in China: A Look Back and A Look Forward

Freedom of Religion The government restricts religious practice to five officially recognized religions and only in officially approved religious premises. The government retains control over religious personnel appointments, publications, finances, and seminary applications. Zhang was released in March.

But in Jinhua City, pastors Bao Guohua and Xing Wenxiang were sentenced to 14 and 12 years, respectively, in a case widely seen as retaliation for their opposition to the anti-cross campaign.

Possibly because their activism is not considered threatening to the state, LGBT individuals enjoyed some success advancing legal cases in 2016. In January, a Hunan court heard a case filed by Sun Wenlin against the local Bureau of Civil Affairs, which had refused to marry Sun and his male partner.

Though the court ruled against Sun in April, his case—the first gay marriage lawsuit accepted by Chinese courts—attracted wide media attention. Qiu filed a similar suit in 2015, though she withdrew it later because the department had promised to look into the matter.

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  • When terms are more frequent, their observed deletion rates should naturally be closer to the base rate;
  • Although authorities released some detainees on bail, including lawyer Wang Yu and her husband, legal advocate Bao Longjun, their lawyers and close friends have not been able to contact them;
  • We first build a deleted message set by checking whether or not messages originally published between 30 June and 25 July 2011 still existed three months later i;
  • In August, a spokesperson for the Education Bureau warned teachers that they could lose their professional qualifications for advocating independence;
  • The Tibetan writers Shokjang and Lomik were given three and seven-and-a-half year sentences, respectively, and Lu Konchok Gyatso and Tashi Wangchuk remained in custody at time of writing, one for planning to publish a book and the other for speaking to the New York Times about the loss of Tibetan language teaching.

In June, China voted against a UN resolution creating an expert post dedicated to addressing violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. In April, in a landmark case, a Guangzhou court ruled in favor of a woman who sued two companies for discriminating against her in their hiring process. Disability Rights Although China ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2008, persons with disabilities continue to face barriers and discrimination in areas including education and employment.

The government also continues to detain activists in psychiatric facilities. Regulations drafted in 2013 on access to education for people with disabilities have still not been adopted. Official guidelines continue to allow universities to deny enrollment in certain subjects if the applicants have certain disabilities. Official guidelines on hiring civil servants continue to discriminate against those with certain disabilities.

  1. One point per term. Possibly because their activism is not considered threatening to the state, LGBT individuals enjoyed some success advancing legal cases in 2016.
  2. Communist Theory on Speech and Press Freedoms Freedom of information, speech and the press is firmly rooted in the structures of modern western democratic thought.
  3. The second matter concerns freedom of speech, assembly and association for the people. At that point, access to oppositional speech and information is no longer beneficial to the communist state, and thus no longer needed in communist philosophy.
  4. Rare Story From Inside China's Secret Detention System The Chinese government should immediately abolish a secretive detention system used to coerce confessions from corruption suspects. Beyond such individual stories of content censorship, there are a far greater number of reports of search censorship, in which users are prohibited from searching for messages containing certain keywords.
  5. We wish to remove spam, since spam is a major reason for message deletion, but we are interested in politically—driven message deletions.

In August, Tan Jinsong, a man with visual impairment was rejected for a job with the local legislative office in Henan province despite obtaining the highest scores in the civil service exam. Several governments, including those of Canada, the European Union, Germany, and the United States, issued statements in 2016 about the crackdown on civil society, disappearances of the Hong Kong booksellers, and the foreign NGO management law.

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No government, however, imposed any other concrete costs on Beijing for its deteriorating human rights record. China responded by dismissing the legality of the court, saying it would not respect the ruling. China also abstained on resolutions that authorized additional regional peacekeepers for South Sudan and UN police for Burundi. None of the governments present pushed the AIIB to adopt safeguard policies requiring the bank to identify and address human rights risks in its projects.

The AIIB has not publicly addressed whether it will consult with nongovernmental groups, particularly in countries hostile to independent monitors. In an alarming trend, Beijing pressured several governments, including Armenia, Cambodia, and Kenya, to deport Taiwanese citizens to mainland China. The people, suspected in the mainland of fraud, were given no discernible opportunity to contest their deportations before a competent court in those countries.

It was unclear at time of writing whether any of these people had access to family members or lawyers of their own choosing while awaiting trial in China, or what guarantees the returning countries sought from China prior to their return.