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A history of the gay rights movement in america

In more recent times, however, while many still regard it as wrong, they have adopted the attitude that God's grace is for all people, and see homosexuals primarily as human beings deserving of human rights.

The movement for LGBT rights emerged in the twentieth century, as many human rights issues became prominent. This century marks the age in which the rights of all individuals began to be recognized in cultures around the world, a significant step in the establishment of a world of peace and harmony. Goals and strategies Lesbian married couple at San Francisco Pride 2004. The LGBT community is as disparate as any other large body, and as such its members have different views regarding the goals toward which activists should aim and what strategies they should use in accomplishing these ends.

Nevertheless, somewhat of a consensus has emerged among contemporary activists. Sociologist Mary Bernstein writes: Political goals include changing laws and policies in order to gain new rightsbenefits, and protections from harm. As with other social movementsthere is also conflict within and between LGBT movements, especially about strategies for change and debates over exactly who comprises the constituency that these movements represent.

There is debate over to what extent lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgendered people, intersexed people, and others share common interests and a need to work together. Leaders of the lesbian and gay movement of the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s often attempted to hide butch lesbians, feminine gay men, transgendered people, and bisexuals from the public eye, creating internal divisions within LGBT communities.

Those using this approach aspire to liberal political goals of freedom and equal opportunity, and aim to join the political mainstream on the same level as other groups in society. However, others within LGBT movements have criticized identity politics as limited and flawed, [4] and have instead aimed to transform fundamental institutions of society such as lesbian feminism or have argued that all members of society have the potential for same-sex sexuality such as Adolf Brand or Gay Liberation or a broader range of gender expression such as the transgender writing of Kate Bornstein.

Some elements of the movement have argued that the categories of gay and lesbian are restrictive, and attempted to deconstruct those categories, which are seen to "reinforce rather than challenge a cultural system that will always mark the nonheterosexual as inferior. Important framers of the movement include Karl Ulrichs, who wrote about gay rights in the 1860s, the revived western culture following World War IIthe new social movements of the 1960s, and the unprecedented level of acceptance of the LGBT community in the later twentieth century.

Before 1860 In eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe, same-sex sexual behavior and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary a history of the gay rights movement in america.

Any organized community or social life was underground and secret. Thomas Cannon wrote what may be the earliest published defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd 1749.

Social reformer Jeremy Bentham wrote the first known argument for homosexual law reform in England around 1785, at a time when the legal penalty for "buggery" was death by hanging. In 1833, an anonymous English-language writer wrote a poetic defense of Captain Nicholas Nicholls, who had been sentenced to death in London for sodomy: Whence spring these inclinations, rank and strong?

  1. No television show had any identifiable gay characters. Studies have consistently shown that people with negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays are more likely to be male, older, religious, politically conservative, and have little close personal contact with out gay men and lesbians.
  2. From the anarchistic Gay Liberation Movement of the early 1970s arose a more reformist and single-issue "Gay Rights Movement," which portrayed gays and lesbians as a minority group and used the language of civil rights—in many respects continuing the work of the homophile period. These opinions are not necessarily held by all members of these sects and the status of homosexuality remains hotly contested among members in many.
  3. There is debate over to what extent lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgendered people, intersexed people, and others share common interests and a need to work together.
  4. Veteran activists such as Sylvia Rivera and Beth Elliot were sidelined or expelled because they were transsexual.

And harming no one, wherefore call them wrong? Die Mannerliebe der Griechen "Eros: The Male-love of the Greeks"another defense of same-sex love. Ulrichs came out publicly and began publishing books about same-sex love and gender variance in the 1860s, a few years before the term "homosexual" was first published in 1869.

Ulrichs' Uranians were people with a range of gender expressions and same-sex desires; he considered himself "a female psyche in a male body. A secret British society called the "Order of Chaeronea" campaigned for the legalization of homosexuality, and counted playwright Oscar Wilde among its members in the last decades of the nineteenth century.

Magnus Hirschfeld was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. In Europe and America, a broader movement of "free love" was also emerging from the 1860s among first-wave feminists and radicals of the libertarian Left. They critiqued Victorian sexual morality and the traditional institutions of family and marriage that were seen to enslave women. Some advocates of free love in the early twentieth century also spoke in defense of same-sex love and challenged repressive legislation, such as the Russian anarchist and feminist Emma Goldman.

  1. The Male-love of the Greeks" , another defense of same-sex love.
  2. Lesbian feminism, which was most influential from the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s, encouraged women to direct their energies toward other women rather than men, and advocated lesbianism as the logical result of feminism.
  3. Anita Bryant organized the first major opposition movement to gay rights in America, based on fundamentalist Christian values.
  4. The homophile movement began in the late 1940s, with groups in the Netherlands and Denmark, and continued throughout the 1950s and 1960s with groups in Sweden, Norway, the United States, France, Britain and elsewhere.

In 1898, German doctor and writer Magnus Hirschfeld formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee to campaign publicly against the notorious law "Paragraph 175," which made sex between men illegal.

Adolf Brand later broke away from the a history of the gay rights movement in america, disagreeing with Hirschfeld's medical view of the "intermediate sex," seeing male-male sex as merely an aspect of manly virility and male social bonding. May 14, 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical Die Freundin Girlfriend. The 1901 book, Sind es Frauen?

Women only began to join the previously male-dominated sexual reform movement around 1910, when the German government tried to expand Paragraph 175 to outlaw sex between women. The institute conducted an enormous amount of research, saw thousands of transgender and homosexual clients at consultations, and championed a broad range of sexual reforms including sex education, contraception, and women's rights.

However, the gains made in Germany would soon be drastically reversed with the rise of Nazism, and the institute and its library were destroyed in 1933.

The Swiss journal Der Kreis was the only part of the movement to continue through the Nazi era. In the United States, several secret or semi-secret groups were formed explicitly to advance the rights of homosexuals as early as the turn of the twentieth century, but little is known about them. These groups usually preferred the term homophile to "homosexual," emphasizing love over sex.

The homophile movement began in the late 1940s, with groups in the Netherlands and Denmark, and continued throughout the 1950s and 1960s with groups in Sweden, Norway, the United States, France, Britain and elsewhere.

S, [12] was bankrolled by the wealthy transsexual man Reed Erickson.

The homophile movement lobbied within established political systems for social acceptability; radicals of the 1970s would later disparage the homophile groups for being assimilationist.

Any demonstrations were orderly and polite. S, [14] and a national organization had been formed, but they were largely ignored by the media. A 1965 gay march held in front of Independence Hall in Philadelphiaaccording to some historians, marked the beginning of the modern gay rights movement.

Meanwhile in San Francisco in 1966, transgender street prostitutes in the poor neighborhood of Tenderloin rioted against police harassment at a popular all-night restaurant, Gene Compton's Cafeteria. This new radicalism is often attributed to the Stonewall riots of 1969, when a group of transgender, lesbian, and gay male patrons at a bar in New York resisted a police raid.

Their use of the word "gay" represented a new unapologetic defiance—as an antonym for "straight" "respectable sexual behavior"it encompassed a range of non-normative sexualities and gender expressions, such as transgender street prostitutesand sought ultimately to free the bisexual potential in everyone, rendering obsolete the categories of homosexual and heterosexual.

Chapters of the GLF were established across the U.

Gay rights movement

One of the values of the movement was gay pride. Organized by an early GLF leader Brenda Howard, the Stonewall riots were commemorated by annual marches that became known as Gay pride parades. From 1970 activists protested the classification of homosexuality as a mental illness by the American Psychiatric Association in their DSM, and in 1974, it was replaced with a category of "sexual orientation disturbance" then "ego-dystonic homosexuality," which was also deleted, although "gender identity disorder" remains.

From the anarchistic Gay Liberation Movement of the early 1970s arose a more reformist and single-issue "Gay Rights Movement," which portrayed gays and lesbians as a minority group and used the language of civil rights—in many respects continuing the work of the homophile period.

Veteran activists such as Sylvia Rivera and Beth Elliot were sidelined or expelled because they were transsexual. During this period, the International Lesbian and Gay Association ILGA was formed 1978and it continues to campaign for lesbian and gay human rights with the United Nations and individual national governments. Lesbian feminism, which was most influential from the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s, encouraged women to direct their energies toward other women rather than men, and advocated lesbianism as the logical result of feminism.

Many women of the Gay Liberation movement felt frustrated at the domination of the movement by men and formed separate organisations; some who felt gender differences between men and women could not be resolved developed "lesbian separatism," influenced by writings such as Jill Johnston's 1973 book Lesbian Nation.

Disagreements between different political philosophies were, at times, extremely heated, and became known as the lesbian sex wars, [22] clashing in particular over views on sadomasochism, prostitutionand transsexuality. The term "gay" came to be more strongly associated with homosexual males.

Some younger activists, seeing "gay and lesbian" as increasingly normative and politically conservative, began using the word queer as a defiant statement of all sexual minorities and gender variant people—just as the earlier liberationists had done with the word "gay. In the 1990s, organizations began to spring up in non-western countries, such as Progay Philippines, which was founded in 1993 and organized the first Gay Pride march in Asia on June 26, 1994.

In many countries, LGBT organizations remain illegal as of 2006 and transgender and homosexual activists face extreme opposition from the state. Also, many activists attempted to turn the attention of the West to the situation of queers in non-western countries. The 1990s also saw a rapid expansion of transgender rights movements across the globe.

Hijra activists campaigned for recognition as a third sex in India and Travesti groups began to organize against police brutality a history of the gay rights movement in america Latin America, while activists in the United States formed militant groups such as Transexual Menace.

An important text was Leslie Feinberg's "Transgender Liberation: In many cases, LGBTI rights movements came to focus on questions of intersectionality, the interplay of oppressions arising from being both queer and underclasscolored, disabled, and so on. Some people are morally opposed to anything other than traditional heterosexuality and are therefore opposed to anything involving homosexualitybisexualityor anything in between. Other than this, there exist people who are opposed to gay rights from a legal perspective.

More often than not these people support similar, but not identical, rights for LGBT people. These opponents would argue for such things a history of the gay rights movement in america civil unions versus marriage. Others believe that being gay or lesbian is a choice rather than naturally determined, and because of this people should not be treated the same as those who follow "natural" impulses.

LGBT movements are opposed by a variety of individuals and organizations. They may have a personal, moral, or religious objection to homosexuality. Studies have consistently shown that people with negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays are more likely to be male, older, religious, politically conservative, and have little close personal contact with out gay men and lesbians. Studies find that heterosexual men usually exhibit more hostile attitudes toward gay men and lesbians than do heterosexual women.

Subsequently, the Nazis also began sending homosexuals to concentration camps. The organized gay rights movement would not rise again until after the Second World War. Anita Bryant organized the first major opposition movement to gay rights in America, based on fundamentalist Christian values.

The name of this group was "Save Our Children," and its most successful campaign resulted in the repealing of Dade County's Civil Rights Ordinance by an overwhelming margin of 69 to 31. Conservative Christian organizations behaved similarly in other nations.

In the 1980s organizations opposed to gay rights successfully persuaded the British Conservative Party to enact Section 28, which banned public schools from "promoting homosexuality" or endorsing same-sex marriages.

Their rationale is that homosexuality is immoral, and that scouts are expected to have certain moral standards and values, as the Scout Oath and Scout Law requires boys to be "morally straight. Dale that the Boy Scouts of America is a private organization, and as such can decide its own membership rules.

United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces' "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy requires gay men and lesbians to be discharged from the armed forces if they come out, but does not allow the military to specifically question people about their sexual orientation.

Fascist political parties have been universal in their violent opposition to gay rights. Neo Nazi organizations and oppose gay rights, and may advocate life sentences in prison or concentration camps for homosexuals, or even the death penalty [33] which was instituted by the original Nazis instituted in 1942. The British National Party has shifted its platform from recriminalization to an extension of clause 28-style legislation, making it illegal to portray homosexuality positively in the media.

While a libertarian perspective on gay rights endorses some gay rights positions, it also opposes gay rights when they involve anti-discrimination laws that impose government regulations on the private sector, religious organizations or a history of the gay rights movement in america clubs. The Gays and Lesbians For Individual Liberty filed a Supreme Court brief in support of the right of the Boy Scouts of America to refuse to admit gays into its ranks noting that if the BSA were forced by government to admit gay members, gay organizations might also be forced to admit anti-gay members.

Outright Libertarians, favor an approach that does not require government coercion and seek to limit government action to the implementation of equal rights—rather than "special rights" such as legally-required preferential treatment on the basis of sexual orientation in employment, housing or education that are often demanded by other gay organizations.

The libertarian position on gay rights underscores the divide between liberal groups who favor ENDA and hate crimes laws as a primary vehicle for gay rights and libertarians who generally view gay rights as equal treatment in areas such as marriage equality and other positions that are broadly opposed by both Democrats and Republicans. A resolution adopted by the American Psychological Association in August 1997 states that "homosexuality is not a mental disorder.

This is a primary reason why many religious social conservatives oppose the gay rights movement. Some also cite natural lawsometimes called "God's law" or "nature's law," when opposing the gay rights movement.

These laws are based on such passages from the Qur'an as And Lut, when he said to his tribe: You come with lust to men instead of women.