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A historical overview of the role of women in the society

Every Ecuadoran, man or woman, of twenty years of age who can read and write, is a citizen.

The arrival of Catholicism to Ecuador helped establish a patriarchal society where women were relegated to the domestic sphere and expected to submit to the will of their male relatives. While only one of the nine constitutions adopted between 1830 and 1929 explicitly barred women from citizenship, their exclusion was implied in the rest. Indeed, because of property and literacy requirements, suffrage was almost exclusively limited to elite white males; in 1830, only 2,825 people, or 0.

Women and Indigenous Rights: Women and Indians in Ecuador have often suffered from similar discriminatory practices employed by elite white males. Both groups were subordinated under Catholic, patriarchal, colonial society; both were denied citizenship status and voting rights long after independence had been achieved, and both continue to face discrimination and under-representation despite nominal equality.

The constitution of 1929 was adopted during the presidency of Isidro Ayora, who came to power in the junta established in 1926 Cordero.

This constitution gave the vote to literate Ecuadorian women, although voting was not obligatory for women as it was for men. While Ecuador was the first Latin American country to adopt such a policy, Becker insists that the new constitution did not, in fact, reflect liberal progressivism. Furthermore, the continued stipulation in the 1929 constitution that citizens must be literate perpetuated the exclusion of most indigenous people from voting and other citizenship rights.

  • Constitution abolished slavery, provided the former slaves with the "privileges and immunities" of citizenship including equal protection of the law, and extended the right to vote to men who had been slaves;
  • Women in factories often work as machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors;
  • Y Su, "Ideological representations of Taiwan's history;;;
  • It can therefore be argued that women are generally marginalised and underrepresented in - and in some cases even excluded from - history textbooks;
  • This was a period of prosperity;
  • Women were also active in movements for agrarian and labor reforms and for birth control.

In 1944, an event called the May Revolution pushed women into the political arena. The Revolution involved a popular movement against President Carlos Arroyo del Rio, and various women played important roles in this rebellion.

In 1967, a constitution was drafted that made voting obligatory for Ecuadorian women as it already was for men Hanratty.

The Historical and Contemporary Role of Women in Ecuadorian Society

Another constitution in 1979 dropped the literacy requirement for citizenship rights and forbade discrimination based on race or sex.

A 1987 law also gave women equality with men in the areas of divorce, property rights, and inheritance rights. Thus women in Ecuador have gained tremendous legal grounf in Ecuador in the last fifty years. Although, of course, law does not always translate into practice. Indigenous female leaders have played important roles in the advancement of indigenous rights. Urban White Feminist Leaders: Throughout her life she forwarded the cause of Ecuadorian women both through her advocacy work and by serving as an example of a capable female leader.

Like other female leaders during this time period, she helped to break down centuries-old gender boundaries Contemporary Issues Facing Ecuadorian Women: Despite the many legal advances that Ecuadorian women have gained over the past century, many social problems continue to face women in Ecuador today, especially in rural areas.

Examples of such problems include high fertility rates, lack of access to contraceptives and prenatal care, sexual harassment in the workplace, and domestic violence Ecuador Gender Review. However, many advances have also been made.

The establishment of comisarias de la mujer, or police stations for women, has provided women with an alternative to remaining in an abusive home Ecuador Gender Review. In 2004 the U.

  1. Therefore, the way in which women and men are portrayed in history textbooks, we argue, is most likely to be considered by the youth as true and accurate historical knowledge. In most preindustrial societies, for example, domestic chores were relegated to women, leaving "heavier" labor such as hunting and plowing to men.
  2. Colonial North America was a "new world", with so much to do just to survive that the work of all, man and woman, adult and child, was necessary. Senator Margaret Chase Smith served Maine for 24 years 1949-73.
  3. With the Union victory in the Civil War, women abolitionists hoped their hard work would result in suffrage for women as well as for blacks.
  4. In Israel women are drafted into the armed forces along with men and receive combat training.
  5. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 required equal wages for men and women doing equal work. In 1872 the Prohibition party became the first national political party to recognize the right of suffrage for women in its platform.

State Department also identified over 320 organizations in Ecuador focusing on the economic, social, and political advancement of women. While Ecuadorian women have come a long way in the last hundred years in the social, economic, and political spheres, they still face many problems in each of these areas. Legal rights have not always translated to practical freedoms, and rural women are disproportionately affected by these issues.

However, as Ecuadorian women increasingly hold political office, work outside of the home, and seek redress for the problems that oppress them, there is hope that they will attain greater equality and influence in the future.

The Politics of Exclusion in Ecuador. This article, which was prepared by Becker for presentation at the Conference on Latin American History in 1999, offers an overview of Ecuadorean citizenship requirements from the colonial period to the twentieth century. The author focuses on the exclusion of Indians and women from Ecuadorean politics and gives details about the barriers and events that prevented them from enjoying full participation in political and social life.

Scholarly Resources Inc, 2003. This article comes from the Spanish-language website EduFuturo, which contains information about Latin American historical figures, culture, and important events.

This lengthy overview of human rights issues in Ecuador was published by the U.

  • In some instances, their activities exceeded the simple needs of the household and were integrated within the production of large organizations or commercial channels;
  • Many retail stores would not issue independent credit cards to married women.

State Department in 2005. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2000. This country study issued by the World Bank in 2000 examines in detail gender issues in Ecuador, particularly focusing on social and health issues such as domestic violence, lack of access to reproductive healthcare, and education. It offers a variety of statistical data.

  1. State Department also identified over 320 organizations in Ecuador focusing on the economic, social, and political advancement of women.
  2. The American Woman 1990-91.
  3. In 1840, for example, women who were members of the American delegation to the World Antislavery Conference in London were refused seats because of their sex.
  4. For example, Wyoming granted women the right to vote in territorial elections in 1869, and Jeanette Rankin was elected to the House of Representatives from the state of Montana in 1916 before women had the right to vote in most states. GPO for the Library of Congress, 1989.

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1930. This book contains portions of important legal documents from a variety of countries. The four-page section on Ecuador includes parts of the Constitution of 1929 and the Law of October 18, 1921.

The Role of Women in Work and Society in the Ancient Near East

GPO for the Library of Congress, 1989. This website contains a 1989 U. It is an accessible compilation of information about Ecuadorian history, geography and climate, society, population, religion, economy, government, and politics. It offers information about her life and particularly about her role in advancing the lot of women and indigenous peoples.

It is written in Spanish. This article is from the Ecuadorian Spanish-language newspaper Los Andes, which contains national news about politics, sports, education, important events, and editorials. University of Arizona, 2007. In this book the author examines patriarchy and liberalism in Ecuador from the time of its independence to the present.

She focuses especially on issues facing indigenous peoples in Ecuador and gender relations within these groups, but she also explores more generally the role of women in a patriarchal Ecuadorian society. Stevens, Evelyn, and Tracy Ehlers.