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A comparison of two settlements new england and the chesapeake

Following Columbus voyages to W. Indies, Spanish established sugar plantations; when Natives died imported African slave labor remaking population of Caribbean; in Mexico used Native Population to mine gold; when this population died, Spanish in SW turned to ranching and farming. Beyond houses were common pastures, woodlots, and private holdings assigned to each family based on military rank: Settlers received water for irrigation in proportion to their acreage which was in proportion to rank.

French pattern of living in cities along St.

A comparison of the english settlements in the chesapeake regions and new england colonies

Both Spanish and French had considerable trade with Native population and contacts resulted in substantial metis and mestizo populations.

Virginia Company of London established 1606 to extract gold from Virginia, created outpost in Jamestown in 1607. Unable to find gold, but in 1612 English began planting tobacco. Tobacco very labor and soil intensive: As in Caribbean, scarcity of labor led to importation of African slave population, as well as to use of indentured labor and headright system to encourage population growth.

RESULT of these land systems combined with demands of tobacco agriculture and geography of Chesapeake region wide, navigable rivers to create very dispersed population in contrast to Spanish or French.

Earliest English settlers in Carolinas came from Barbados where they had run sugar plantations along Spanish model with African slaves. Sugar did not do well in Carolinas, but west African slaves planters brought with them introduced new crop--rice--which was Carolinas major export throughout 18C. By contrast, family farm with children providing labor rather than slaves or indentures became prevailing mode of agricultural production in English middle colonies and New England. Mid-Atlantic colonies topography and navigable rivers led to dispersed settlement pattern.

Pennsylvania had reputation as "best poor man's country" and for most of 18C had no trouble attracting settlement. Was "breadbasket" of Colonial America like Iowa or Kansas today.

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Pattern repeated itself in mid-late 19C with German and Scandinavian immigrants farmers in the upper midwest. Of course, family farms grouped around religious community was main pattern in 17C New England. Biggest difference between New England and colonies to the south was that while Chesapeake and Carolinas were in many ways extension of commercial revolution of early modern england, puritan settlements were not only an extension of it Massachusetts Bay Company but also a reaction against it.

In many ways, their model community very much resembled medieval village in settlement pattern, ties of religious obligation, and especially effort to regulate individual social and economic behavior.

Earliest Massachusetts towns had nucleated settlement with outlying fields and common pastureland at the time when pastures were being fenced and enclosed in old England.

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John Winthrop was "setting the price" in Massachusetts long after "free market" forces had obliterated this practice in Old England. Desire to live close together meant concentrated settlement--in 17C town held all land and dispersed it according to need. New England also traded with England timber, fish, furs --but primary goal of Colony was self-sufficiency, and this was replicated, to an extent still hotly debated by historians, at the village and family farm level.

This meant that while Chesapeake and Carolinas were transforming huge tracts of land to produce tobacco and rice for market, New England and Middle Colony farmers were growing cereals and staples similar to what they would be growing in England, and producing items for local trade.

Certainly inland, if anywhere, we might find the "subsistence" family farm that Carolyn Merchant describes on pp.