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A comparison of the hellenic and the hellenistic ages of ancient greece

It also studies the impact of Hellenic civilization on other time periods, such as the Medieval period, the Renaissance, and modern times. This was because many of the dominant scholars and writers of the period were born in Athens, though we do have sources from other Greek city-states. In 510 BCE, the first democracy was created in Athens following the overthrow of the last Athenian tyrant, due to the efforts of Cleisthenes.

The resulting democracy allowed for the flourishing of free-thinkers and writers, producing some of the most well-known achievements in art, literature, science, philosophy, and other sciences. When Alexander the Great died. As a result of Alexander's campaigns, the Greek world was forever changed after his death in 323 BCE. Alexander's campaigns had brought the Greeks into contact with a multitude of Asian cultures, and Alexander had sought to incorporate Greek and Macedonian cultures with the cultures he encountered - discouraging later practices of "conquer and assimilate.

The Hellenistic period ended when the Romans came to town. Greek culture became absorbed by the Romans, beginning the "Roman Greece" period which lasted until 330 CE.

For more information on the history of Ancient Greece, Buzzbee has created an excellent hub.

Differences between Hellenistic and Hellenic Greek Civilization

Philosophy The Hellenic period witnessed the invention of philosophy. There were many individual philosophers during this time, each of whom had followers that often branched out from the original philosopher's train of thought.

One of the most notable works of this time is Plato's Republic, which was the earliest systematic treatment of political philosophy.

Other philosophers include Aristotle and Socrates.

  1. Classical Greek philosophy, the philosophy of the Sophists and of Socrates in the 5th century, was concerned with the citizen's intimate relationship with the polis or city-state.
  2. The Hellenistic period witnessed some major developments in religion.
  3. Greeks Hellenic were isolated and their civilization was termed classic because it was not heavily influenced by outside forces.
  4. Hipparchus calculated the length of the lunar month. Actually soon the rise of Monotheism would end that entire system of government.

The Hellenistic period witnessed philosophers who focused on reason rather than the quest for truth. These philosophers possessed a fundamental regard for reason as the key to solving problems, and they denied the possibility of attaining truth.

Instead, we see philosophers revert to a reliance on faith - accepting the inability to know truth. The major philosophical groups of this period include the CynicsEpicureansStoicsand Skeptics. Unlike the Hellenic period, very few individual philosophers existed independent of these schools of thought.

Literature The Homeric epics originated during the Hellenic period, reinforcing faith in human greatness and delighting in the beautiful aspects of life. Lyrical poetry thrived in its gentle and personal style. Tragic dramas - such as Antigone and Oedipus - were the supreme achievement of the Hellenic world, incorporated in many outdoor festivals for audiences of thousands.

And comedy, notably those by Aristophanes, lacked the politeness and subtlety of other genres.

  • These philosophers possessed a fundamental regard for reason as the key to solving problems, and they denied the possibility of attaining truth;
  • Euripides viewed the human soul as a place where opposing forces struggle, where strong passions such as hatred and jealousy conflict with reason;
  • How did these differences affect the every-day lives of the people?
  • One of the most notable works of this time is Plato's Republic, which was the earliest systematic treatment of political philosophy;
  • In other words, whereas 5th century comedies focused on the relationship between the citizen and city-state, 4th century comedies made jokes about cooks, the price of fish, and incompetent doctors;
  • In math, Pythagorean invented his theorem.

During the Hellenistic period, however, that all changed. Comedies became more akin to dramas, as evidenced in the works of Menander. Theocritus wrote pastorals that created make-believe worlds, rather than commenting on his own.

  • Duty to the city-state was in itself virtuous;
  • A notable achievement is the rise in architecture of the Doric and Ionic columns;
  • The Library at Alexandria became a focal point of learning and preservation of ancient cultural records.

And prose became dominated by historians, biographers, and authors writing of utopia. It embodied exuberance, cheerful sensuality, and coarse with. Marble statues and reliefs depicted human greatness and sensuality.

Comparison of Hellenic and Hellenistic Greek Civilization

A notable achievement is the rise in architecture of the Doric and Ionic columns. In the Hellenistic world, art became less "art" and more "commodity. Sculpture of the period emphasize extreme naturalism and unashamed extravagance, rather than the former idyllic beauties and perfect Davids.

The arts of this time were supported by many wealthy patrons, who used art for show rather than pursue it for its own pleasure. The architecture of this period also reflected the inherent materialism of art, emphasizing grandeur and luxuriance. However, some architectural achievements include the first lighthouse, the citadel of Alexandria, and the Corinthian column.

Science The Hellenic world witnessed the birth of many of the world's most well-known ancient scientists and theories. In astronomy, Thales predicted a solar eclipse.

In math, Pythagorean invented his theorem. Aristotle engaged in metaphysics and syllogism. It was science as we know it today: In medicine, many scientists used philosophy rather than science. Most "doctors" considered that regularities divorced from supernatural causes created illness and health i.

However, this period also witnessed the achievements of Hippocrates, who is considered the "father" of modern medicine and invented the practice of bleeding patients to release the toxins. The Hellenistic world, unlike its faults in many of the other arts, actually built upon the foundation laid by Hellenic scientists.

Considered the First Great Age of science, intellectual inquiry was supported by wealthy patrons who helped the sciences to thrive. The elements of geometry, physiology, and Archimedes' principle of specific gravity are only few of the many achievements of the period.

What are the similarities and differences of the Hellenic and Hellenistic periods of Greek history?

In medicine, achievements also continued: Mithra Source Religion Religion in the Hellenic world derived from the debates of philosophers. There were debates over the goals of existence, which mostly led to some kind of intellectual cultivation and the search for the highest good. The Ancient Greek pantheon of gods had been developed by this time, but the nature of the pantheon left humans able to question and debate the significance of the gods and their actions.

The Hellenistic period witnessed some major developments in religion. Zoroastrianism arose as one of the first documented monotheistic religions, with Ahura-Mazda as the single god and the intercession of magi priests on earth. Mystery cults also permeated the period, stressing ecstatic mystical union and otherworldly salvation. Mithraism, another monotheistic religion, also arose in the this time period, with the god Mithra having been born on December 24 and holding Sunday as a sacred day.

Does Mithra sound familiar?