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A brief description of the country of iran

Unlike many other Middle East countries, Iran managed to remain independent throughout much of its history. The Bahai and Zoroastrian faiths originated in Iran. Since 1979, Iran is an Islamic Republic. It also borders on Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east, and Turkey to the west.

Click for large map Iran has a semi-arid climate for the most part, but it is extremely rich in natural resources. Additionally, it has considerable quantities of fairly low grade uranium. By 1794 he had eliminated all his rivals, and had retaken former Iranian territories in Georgia and the Caucasus.

  • The head of the Mossad, the Israeli intelligence organization, Meir Dagan, has estimated that Iran will have developed or could develop nuclear weapons by 2014, an estimate that agrees with U;
  • He was a nationalist, and not a communist, though the Tudeh communist party supported him for a time.

Agha Mohammad established his capital at Tehran, a village near the ruins of the ancient city of Ray. In 1796 he was formally crowned as Shah, but he was assassinated in 1797 and was succeeded by his nephew, Fath Ali Shah. Iran suffered major military defeats in both wars, signing the Treaty of Golestan in 1813, and the Treaty of Turkmanchai in 1828, and ceding to Russia Georgia, the north Caucasus, and the eventually the the entire area north of the Aras River, which includes present day Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Fath Ali Shah died in 1834 and was succeed by Mohammad Shah. He died in 1848 and was succeeded by Naser o-Din Shah. Naser o-Din Shah was the ablest of the Qajar rules.

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He introduced Western science, technology, and educational methods and began the modernization of Iran. He tried to play off the imperial powers, Great Britain and Russia, to preserve Iran's independence, but he was not able to prevent Britain and Russia from encroaching into regions of traditional Iranian influence.

In 1856 Britain prevented Iran from reasserting control over Herat, and helped make Herat part of Afghanistan. By 1881 Russia had conquered present-day Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, bringing Russia's frontier to Iran's northeastern borders and severing historic Iranian connections to Bukhara and Samarqand.

Trade concessions by Iran put the Iranian economy largely under British control. Mozaffar o-Din Shah was a weak and ineffectual ruler. He quickly spent two large loans from Russia, partly on trips to Europe. Public anger was fueled by the shah's willingness to grant concessions to Europeans in return for generous payments to him and his officials.

The shah's failed to respond to protests by the religious establishment, the merchants, and other classes and instituted Repressive measures. In August the shah was forced to issue a decree promising a constitution. In October an elected assembly convened and drew up a constitution that provided for strict limitations on royal power, an elected parliament, or Majles, with wide powers to represent the people, and a government with a cabinet subject to confirmation by the Majles.

The Shah signed the constitution on December 30, 1906, but died five days later. Supplementary Fundamental Laws approved in 1907 provided, within limits, for freedom of press, speech, and association, and for security of life and property. The Constitutional Revolution marked the end of the medieval period in Iran Iranians are very proud of this event However, but the constitution remained to a large extent a dead letter. Mohammad Ali Shah, son of Mozaffar o-Din took office in 1907. He arrested a brief description of the country of iran of the deputies, and closed down the assembly.

  • Indeed, Teheran is very polluted primarily because of vehicle and refinery emissions;
  • However, unemployment remains high, and drug addiction is rumored to be a very serious problem.

Resistance to the Shah, however, coalesced in several cities, and elsewhere. In July 1909, constitutional forces marched from Rasht and Esfahan to Tehran, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. The ex-Shah went into exile in Russia.

Iran country profile

The upheavals of the Constitutional Revolution and civil war had undermined stability and trade. The ex-Shah, with Russian support, landed troops in Iran in July 1910 in an attempt to regain his throne.

The hope that the Constitutional Revolution would inaugurate a new era of independence from the great powers ended when, under the Anglo-Russian Agreement of 1907, Britain and Russia agreed to divide Iran into spheres of influence.

A crisis was precipitated when Morgan Shuster, a United States administrator hired as treasurer general by the Persian government to reform its finances, sought to collect taxes from powerful officials under Russian protection. The Russians issued an ultimatum demanding Shuster's dismissal, Russian troops, already in the country, moved to occupy the capital.

To prevent the Russian takeover, on December 20 1911, Bakhtiari chiefs and their troops surrounded the Majles building, forced acceptance of the Russian ultimatum, and shut down the assembly, once again suspending the constitution. A period of government by Bakhtiari chiefs ensued until Ahmad Shah, who was 11 when he acceded to the throne, came of age. After suppressing several rebellions, he became Shah in 1925, ruling until 1941 as Reza Shah Pahlavi.

Reza Shah's government transformed Iran in many positive ways, but his dictatorial politics caused unrest and hate, and his foreign policy failed to keep Iran independent, and managed at the same time to alienate both the Soviets and the British. Reza Shah had ambitious plans for modernizing of Iran, including large-scale industries, major infrastructure projects such as railroads, a national public education system, a reformed judiciary, and improving health care.

He wanted a strong, centralized government managed by educated personnel to carry out his plans.

  • He wanted a strong, centralized government managed by educated personnel to carry out his plans;
  • Both Israel and the United States have been watching the Iranian nuclear program with concern;
  • The head of the Mossad, the Israeli intelligence organization, Meir Dagan, has estimated that Iran will have developed or could develop nuclear weapons by 2014, an estimate that agrees with U.

He sent hundreds of Iranians including his son to Europe for training. Reza Shah's numerous development projects transformed Iran into an industrial, urbanized country.

Public education progressed rapidly, and new social classes-a professional middle class and an industrial working class emerged. In 1935, the name of the country was changed from Persia to Iran. However, Britain insisted that German engineers and technicians in Iran were spies and demanded that all German citizens must be expelled.

Reza Shah refused, claiming this would adversely impact his development projects. The suspicion was not absent that in fact the Shah had concluded a secret agreement with Nazi Germany.

  1. Reza Shah refused, claiming this would adversely impact his development projects.
  2. IAEA inspectors became uneasy after finding several discrepancies in Iranian disclosures about their program, and after finding traces of highly enriched uranium in Iranian nuclear sites. The Arak heavy water "research" reactor is of a type that can be used to create fissionable plutonium.
  3. The Ayatollah Khomeini refused all efforts at mediation and insisted that Iran would fight until Saddam Hussein was removed from power in Iraq. Linguistically diverse, Persian Farsi is spoken by the majority of Iranians.
  4. The results returned a suspiciously large victory for Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and opponents claimed obvious fraud.

Both countries eyed the newly opened Trans-Iranian Railroad as an attractive route to transport from Persian Gulf to the Soviet region.

In 1942 the United States, sent a military force to Iran to help maintain and operate sections of the railroad. In January 1942 Britain and Russia signed an agreement with Iran to respect Iran's independence and to withdraw their troops within six months after the end of the war.

In 1943 Tehran Conference U. In 1945, the USSR refused to announce a timetable to leave Iran's northwestern provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, where Soviet supported autonomy movements had developed. Iran 's political system began to mature. Political parties were organized, and the 1944 Majlis election were the first genuinely competitive elections in over 20 years. Foreign influence and interference remained very a sensitive issue for all parties.

Despite his vow to act as a constitutional monarch who would defer to the power of the parliamentary government, Mohammad Reza Shah increasingly involved himself in governmental affairs and opposed or thwarted strong prime ministers. Prone to indecision, however, Mohammad Reza relied more on manipulation than on leadership. In 1949 the Tudeh communist party a brief description of the country of iran banned after an assassination attempt on the Shah, and the Shah's powers were expanded.

Rise and Fall of Mosaddeq - In 1951, the Iranian Parliament voted to nationalize the oil industry, then controlled by Britain. Legislators backing the law elected its leading advocate, Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq, as prime minister following the assassination of his predecessor. Britain responded with threats and sanctions. Mosaddeq was an aging and eccentric academic, immensely popular because of his stands for the common people. He was a nationalist, and not a communist, though the Tudeh communist party supported him for a time.

Mosaddeq became an anti-imperialist hero to the developing world. Raised by a wave of popularity, Mosaddeq showed signs of demagoguery and dictatorial government. When the Shah refused his demand for control of the army forces in 1952, Dr. He was reinstated in the face of popular riots as he very probably knew he would be. Next he conducted a national referendum to dissolve parliament. By 1953, General Eisenhower had become president of the US.

Anti-communist hysteria was reaching its peak. An Iranian general offered to help in the overthrow of Mosaddeq, and the British were able to persuade the American CIA to go ahead with the coup in August. With very scant resources and a shoe-string operational plan, the CIA set out to remove Mosaddeq.

The plan almost failed, and the Shah, never very resolute, had fled to Baghdad and had to be enticed to continue playing his part from there.

The army was loyal to the Shah and Mosaddeq was overthrown and arrested. This coup earned the USA and Britain the lasting hatred of large sectors of Iranian public opinion, uniting communists, nationalists and Shia clericalists behind enmity to foreign meddling.

In the context of a brief description of the country of iran turmoil and the Cold War, the Shah established himself as an indispensable ally of the West. Domestically, he advocated reform policies, culminating in the 1963 program known as the White Revolution, which included land reform, the extension of voting rights to women, and the elimination of illiteracy. These measures and the increasing arbitrariness of the Shah's rule provoked both religious leaders who feared losing their traditional authority and intellectuals seeking democratic reforms.

These opponents criticized the Shah for violation of the constitution, which placed limits on royal power and provided for a representative government, and for subservience to the United States.

The Shah saw himself as heir to the kings of ancient Iran. In 1967 he staged an elaborate coronation ceremony, styling himself "Shah en Shah" - King of Kings. In 1971 he held an extravagant celebration of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy.

In 1976 he replaced the Islamic calendar with an "imperial" calendar, which began with the foundation of the Persian empire around 500 BC. Reza Shah Pahlavi The Shah suppressed and marginalized opponents with the help of Iran's security and intelligence organization, the Savak, using arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, exile and torture, and exciting profound and widespread discontent.

Ayatollah Khomeini had been exiled in 1964 and had been living Najaf Iraq since 1965, and from 1978 in France. In Najaf, Khomeini expounded his ideology of absolutist theocratic rule, Velayat e Faqih, led by a supreme leader, an authority worthy of emulation, the Marj al Taqlid.

  1. Trade concessions by Iran put the Iranian economy largely under British control.
  2. Britain responded with threats and sanctions.
  3. IAEA reports insist that there is no evidence of Iranian nuclear weapons development, but also note that Iran has failed to comply with all inspection requests.
  4. Both parties accepted UN Resolution 598. He was a nationalist, and not a communist, though the Tudeh communist party supported him for a time.

This ideology was spread through books and cassettes smuggled into Iran. However, beginning about 1978, Khomeini began publicizing more democratic views and pretended that he envisioned democratic rule in Iran and that he would not be a leader of the government. Riots erupted in Iran, ignited by various real or manufactured pretexts.

Suffering ill health, the Shah left Iran on January 16 1979. He announced that he was leaving for an eighteen month leave of absence.

Shapour Bakhtiar was unable to keep order with the help of Supreme Army Councils. Inexplicably, Bakhtiar not only allowed the Ayatollah Khomeini to return to Iran, but publicly invited him to return. Bakhtiar eventually dled to France and was assassinated, probably by Iranian agents, in 1991. Bakhtiar had invited the means of his own destruction.