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A biographhy of ivan the terrible a historical figure

Sobriquet[ edit ] The only authentic lifetime portrait of Ivan IV, embossed on the binding of the first-printed Apostle of 1564 The English word terrible is usually used to translate the Russian word grozny in Ivan's nickname, but this is a somewhat archaic translation. The Russian word grozny reflects the older English usage of terrible as in "inspiring fear or terror; dangerous; powerful; formidable".

It does not convey the more modern connotations of English terrible, such as "defective" or "evil". Vladimir Dal defines grozny specifically in archaic usage and as an epithet for tsars: Ivan was proclaimed the Grand Prince of Moscow at the a biographhy of ivan the terrible a historical figure of his father.

His mother Elena Glinskaya initially a biographhy of ivan the terrible a historical figure as regent, but she died of what many believe to be assassination by poison, [13] [14] in 1538 when Ivan was only eight years old. The regency then alternated between several feuding boyar families fighting for control. According to his own letters, Ivan, along with his younger brother Yurioften felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shuisky and Belsky families.

In a letter to Prince Kurbski Ivan remembers, "My brother Iurii, of blessed memory, and me they brought up like vagrants and children of the poorest. What have I suffered for want of garments and food!! He was the first to be crowned as "Tsar of All the Russias", hence claiming the ancestry of Kievan Rus'. Prior to that, rulers of Muscovy were crowned as Grand Princes, although Ivan III the Greathis grandfather, styled himself " tsar " in his correspondence.

Two weeks after his coronation, Ivan married his first wife Anastasia Romanovnaa member of the Romanov familywho became the first Russian tsaritsa.

By being crowned Tsar, Ivan was sending a message to the world and to Russia: The political effect was to elevate Ivan's position. He was now a "divine" leader appointed to enact God's will, as "church texts described Old Testament kings as 'Tsars' and Christ as the Heavenly Tsar.

Ivan revised the law code, creating the Sudebnik of 1550founded a standing army the streltsy[20] established the Zemsky Sobor the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type and the council of the nobles known as the Chosen Counciland confirmed the position of the Church with the Council of the Hundred Chapters Stoglavy Synodwhich unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the whole country. He introduced local self-government to rural regions, mainly in the northeast of Russia, populated by the state peasantry.

By Ivan's order in 1553 the Moscow Print Yard was established and the first printing press was introduced to Russia. Several religious books in Russian were printed during the 1550s and 1560s. The new technology provoked discontent among traditional scribes, leading to the Print Yard being burned in an arson attack.

Nevertheless, printing of books resumed from 1568 onwards, with Andronik Timofeevich Nevezha and his son Ivan now heading the Print Yard.

Basil's Cathedral constructed in Moscow to commemorate the seizure of Kazan. There is a false legend that he was so impressed with the structure that he had the architect, Postnik Yakovlevblinded so that he could never design anything as beautiful again. In reality, Postnik Yakovlev went on to design more churches for Ivan and the walls of the Kazan Kremlin in the early 1560s, as well as the chapel over St.

Basil's grave that was added to St. Basil's Cathedral in 1588, several years after Ivan's death. Although more than one architect was associated with this name and constructions, it is believed that the principal architect is one and the same person. Oprichnina The 1560s brought hardships to Russia that led to a dramatic change of Ivan's policies. Russia was devastated by a combination of drought and famine, unsuccessful wars against the Polish—Lithuanian CommonwealthTatar invasions and the sea-trading blockade carried out by the Swedes, Poles and the Hanseatic League.

His first wife, Anastasia Romanovnadied in 1560, and her death was suspected to be a poisoning. This personal tragedy deeply hurt Ivan and it is thought to have affected his personality, if not his mental health.

At the same time, one of Ivan's advisors, Prince Andrei Kurbskydefected to the Lithuanians, took command of the Lithuanian troops and devastated the Russian region of Velikiye Luki.

Ivan the Terrible

This series of treasons made Ivan paranoically suspicious of nobility. The Oprichniki by Nikolai Nevrev. The painting shows the last minutes of boyarin Feodorov, arrested for treason. To mock his alleged ambitions on the Tsar's title, the nobleman was given Tsar's regalia before execution.

From there he sent two letters in which he announced his abdication because of the alleged embezzlement and treason of the aristocracy and clergy. The boyar court was unable to rule in Ivan's absence and feared the wrath of the Muscovite citizenry. A boyar envoy departed for Aleksandrova Sloboda to beg Ivan to return to the throne. He demanded that he should be able to execute and confiscate the estates of traitors without interference from the boyar council or church.

Upon this, Ivan decreed the creation of the oprichnina.

7 facts about Ivan the Terrible, the first Russian tsar

Ivan held exclusive power over the oprichnina territory. The Boyar Council ruled the zemshchina 'land'the second division of the state.

Ivan also recruited a personal guard known as the Oprichniki. Originally it was a thousand strong. One known oprichnik was the German adventurer Heinrich von Staden.

The oprichniki enjoyed social and economic privileges under the oprichnina. They owed their allegiance and status to Ivan, not to heredity or local bonds. Ivan executed, exiled or forcibly tonsured prominent members of the boyar clans on questionable accusations of conspiracy. Among those executed were the Metropolitan Philip and the prominent warlord Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky. In 1566 Ivan extended the oprichnina to eight central districts.

Of the 12,000 nobles there, 570 became oprichniks, and the rest were expelled. These men "took virtually all the peasants possessed, forcing them to pay 'in one year as much as [they] used to pay in ten. The price of grain increased by a factor of ten. Sack of Novgorod[ edit ] Main article: Massacre of Novgorod Conditions under the Oprichnina were worsened by the 1570 epidemic, a plague that killed 10,000 people in Novgorod, and 600—1,000 daily in Moscow.

During the grim conditions of the epidemic, and a famine along with the ongoing Livonian WarIvan grew suspicious that noblemen of the wealthy city of Novgorod were planning to defect, placing the city itself into the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1570 Ivan ordered the Oprichniki to raid the city. The Oprichniki burned and pillaged Novgorod and the surrounding villages, and the city was never to regain its former prominence.

The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60,000. The massacre of Novgorod consisted of men, women and children that were tied to sleighs, then run into the freezing waters of the Volkhov River, which Ivan ordered on the basis of unproved accusations of treason. He then tortured its inhabitants and killed thousands in a pogrom; the archbishop was also hunted to death.

A biographhy of ivan the terrible a historical figure the official death toll named 1,500 of Novgorod's big people nobility and mentioned only about the same number of smaller people. The Oprichnina did not live long after the sack of Novgorod. During the 1571—72 Russo-Crimean waroprichniks failed to prove themselves worthy against a regular army.

In 1572, Ivan abolished the Oprichnina and disbanded his oprichniks. The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Ivan on the River Narva in 1550 and continued to deliver goods in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia. Russia remained isolated from sea trade. Ivan established close ties with the Kingdom of England.

Ivan IV the terrible

Ivan opened up the White Sea and the port of Arkhangelsk to the Company and granted the Company privilege of trading throughout his reign without paying the standard customs fees.

With the use of English merchants, Ivan engaged in a long correspondence with Elizabeth I of England. While the queen focused on commerce, Ivan was more interested in a military alliance. During his troubled relations with the boyars, the tsar even asked her for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardized. Elizabeth agreed on condition that he provided for himself during his stay.

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In response to a letter of Patriarch Joachim of Alexandria asking the Tsar for financial assistance for the Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsulawhich had suffered from the Turks, Ivan IV sent in 1558 a delegation to Egypt Eyalet by archdeacon Gennady, who, however, died in Constantinople before he could reach Egypt.

From then on the embassy was headed by Smolensk merchant Vasily Poznyakov. After his advance was stalled near Murom, Safa Giray was forced to withdraw to his own borders. These reverses undermined Safa Giray's authority in Kazan.

Ivan The Terrible

A pro-Russian party, represented by Shahgaligained enough popular support to make several attempts to take over the Kazan throne. In 1551 the tsar sent his envoy to the Nogai Horde and they promised to maintain neutrality during the impending war.

The Ar begs and Udmurts submitted to Russian authority as well. In 1551 the wooden fort of Sviyazhsk was transported down the Volga from Uglich all the way to Kazan. It was used as the Russian place d'armes during the decisive campaign of 1552. The last siege of the Tatar capital commenced on 30 August. Under the supervision of Prince Alexander Gorbaty-Shuiskythe Russians used battering rams and a siege towerundermining and 150 cannons. The Russians also had the advantage of efficient military engineers.

  • In a letter to Prince Kurbski Ivan remembers, "My brother Iurii, of blessed memory, and me they brought up like vagrants and children of the poorest;
  • Government departments were reorganised along functional lines, legal codes were updated and the armed forces were overhauled;
  • RBTH remembers how he made it into the history books;
  • Throughout his youth, when he was known as the Grand Prince of Moscow, rival nobles fought for control of the regency;
  • A vision that consumed him and led to an insatiable ambition.

The city's water supply was blocked and the walls were breached. Kazan finally fell on 2 October, its fortifications were razed, and much of the population massacred. About 60,000—100,000 Russian prisoners and slaves were released.

The Tsar celebrated his victory over Kazan by building several churches with oriental features, most famously Saint Basil's Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow. The fall of Kazan had as its primary effect the outright annexation of the Middle Volga.

The Bashkirs accepted Ivan IV's authority two years later. In 1556 Ivan annexed the Astrakhan Khanatedestroyed the largest slave market on the Volga, and had a new fortress built on a steep hill overlooking the river. As a result of the Kazan campaigns, Muscovy was transformed into the multinational and multi-faith state of Russia.

Ivan the Terrible: A Life From Beginning to End

The results presaged the many disasters to come. A plan to unite the Volga and Don by a canal was detailed in Constantinople.

Early in 1570, Ivan's ambassadors concluded a treaty at Constantinople that restored friendly relations between the Sultan and the Tsar.