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Which of the case study countries the most democratic essay

The 10th Sikh Guru Gobind Singh ji Nanak X established the world's first Sikh democratic republic state ending the aristocracy on day of 1st Vasakh 1699 and Gurbani as sole constitution of this Sikh republic on the Indian subcontinent. The Kouroukan Fouga divided the Mali Empire into ruling clans lineages that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara.

Liberal democracy

However, the charter made Mali more similar to a constitutional monarchy than a democratic republic. Magna Carta1215, England The Parliament of England had its roots in the restrictions on the power of kings written into Magna Carta 1215which explicitly protected certain rights of the King's subjects and implicitly supported what became the English writ of habeas corpussafeguarding individual freedom against unlawful imprisonment with right to appeal.

However, the power to call parliament remained at the pleasure of the monarch. The English Civil War 1642—1651 was fought between the King and an oligarchic but elected Parliament, [51] [52] during which the idea of a political party took form with groups debating rights to political representation during the Putney Debates of 1647.

This is how Switzerland’s direct democracy works

After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the Bill of Rights was enacted in 1689 which codified certain rights and liberties, and is still in effect. The Bill set out the requirement for regular elections, rules for freedom of speech in Parliament and limited the power of the monarch, ensuring that, unlike much of Europe at the time, royal absolutism would not prevail.

  • As critics of this system point out, in districts contested by more than two candidates, it is possible to gain the seat with less than a strict majority of votes 50 percent plus one;
  • Similarly, many Americans consider the right to keep and bear arms to be an essential feature to safeguard the right to revolution against a potentially abusive government, while other countries do not recognise this as fundamental the United Kingdom, for example, having strict limitations on the gun ownership by individuals;
  • The survival of democratic institutions in these countries is attributable in part to the existence in their societies of a culture of widely shared democratic beliefs and values;
  • A notable exception is France , which in its fifth constitution , adopted in 1958, combined its parliamentary system with a presidential one;
  • Market economies Accompanying these ideological and institutional changes were changes in economic institutions.

In North America, representative government began in Jamestown, Virginiawith the election of the House of Burgesses forerunner of the Virginia General Assembly in 1619. English Puritans who migrated from 1620 established colonies in New England whose local governance was democratic and which contributed to the democratic development of the United States ; [56] although these local assemblies had some small amounts of devolved power, the ultimate authority was held by the Crown and the English Parliament.

  • However, the charter made Mali more similar to a constitutional monarchy than a democratic republic;
  • With the victory of the Allies in World War I , the ancient systems of monarchy , aristocracy , and oligarchy ceased to be legitimate;
  • Centuries later, Friedrich Schiller celebrated the fight for Swiss independence from foreign occupiers in his masterpiece William Tell, which underpins a bottom-up democracy;
  • This was particularly the case in the United States , and especially in the last fifteen slave states that kept slavery legal in the American South until the Civil War;
  • Majoritarian and consensual systems Because of differences in electoral systems and other factors, democratic countries differ with respect to whether laws and policies can be enacted by a single, relatively cohesive party with a legislative majority, as is ordinarily the case in Britain and Japan, or instead require consensus among several parties with diverse views, as in Switzerland , the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, and elsewhere.

The Puritans Pilgrim FathersBaptistsand Quakers who founded these colonies applied the democratic organisation of their congregations also to the administration of their communities in worldly matters.

The taxed peasantry was represented in parliament, although with little influence, but commoners without taxed property had no suffrage.

  • A variety of organisations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom and equality;
  • Political scientists and others disagree about which of the two types of system, majoritarian or consensual , is more desirable;
  • Economic well-being The development of market economies contributed to the spread of democracy in other ways as well.

The creation of the short-lived Corsican Republic in 1755 marked the first nation in modern history to adopt a democratic constitution all men and women above age of 25 could vote [62]. This Corsican Constitution was the first based on Enlightenment principles and included female suffragesomething that was not granted in most other democracies until the 20th century.

  1. The government, also called Federal Council, is the executive power.
  2. In the American colonial period before 1776 , and for some time after, often only adult white male property owners could vote; enslaved Africans, most free black people and most women were not extended the franchise.
  3. Winner-take-all systems remain in the United States, Canada, and, for parliamentary elections, in Britain. Democratic countries that have adopted federal systems include—in addition to the United States—Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Spain, Canada, and Australia.

In the American colonial period before 1776and for some time after, often only adult white male property owners could vote; enslaved Africans, most free black people and most women were not extended the franchise. Athena has been used as an international symbol of freedom and democracy since at least the late eighteenth century.

Failures of nondemocratic systems

This was particularly the case in the United Statesand especially in the last fifteen slave states that kept slavery legal in the American South until the Civil War. A variety of organisations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom and equality.

The United Kingdom's Slave Trade Act 1807 banned the trade across the British Empirewhich was enforced internationally by the Royal Navy under treaties Britain negotiated with other nations. Universal male suffrage was established in France in March 1848 in the wake of the French Revolution of 1848.

In the 1920s democracy flourished and women's suffrage advanced, but the Great Depression brought disenchantment and most of the countries of Europe, Latin America, and Asia turned to strong-man rule or dictatorships. Fascism and dictatorships flourished in Nazi GermanyItalySpain and Portugalas well as non-democratic governments in the Balticsthe BalkansBrazilCubaChinaand Japanamong others.