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Turns with lag silences and pauses essay

This signal is decoded by a receiver. A decoder The destination can understand the message. A receiver If successful, this exchange involves little loss of meaning, establishes or maintains a relationship, and leaves open the possibility for further exchanges.

The ultimate goal is synergy; the creative output of a whole that is greater than the sum of the individual contributions. However, since communication is a process of coding and decoding of messages, there are many points in the process where the communication can break down. Cultural differences represent an important source of potential obstacles. In order to understand the role of culture in communication, it is helpful to turn to a model developed by Gerbner.

Gerbner's general model takes into consideration perception, culture, the medium and power, emphasizing the dynamic nature of human communication. Modified by Fiske in 1990, this model consists of the following steps: Step Event 1 Person A perceives an event. This perception is filtered by physical ability to experience the event, by personal and cultural selective perceptions and is therefore one step removed from the original event.

Simultaneous interpreting Essay

Every person involved in the communication process has perceptions and filters which structure how they send or receive a message. The sender formulates the message in terms of a cultural frame.

The receiver interprets the message in light of another cultural frame and then creates feedback based on that frame. The original sender then interprets that feedback from within his or her frame. The process is messy and full of cultural static. Therefore, it is important for international executives to empower themselves with knowledge, correct interpretation and informed evaluations of the frames and static that characterize the two or more cultures wishing to communicate efficiently.

Executives whose success at home is based on being an articulate and effective speaker often feel disoriented and frustrated in international situations where an accent and linguistic awkwardness mark their use of a foreign language or where an interpreter becomes their voice and breaks down their rhetorical elegance into chunks.

For this reason, it is useful to consider how content and style influence oral communication. In some cases, it may be acceptable to breach controversial topics during informal socializing, but self-restraint is called for in order to avoid being perceived as ignorant, arrogant or offensive. Inserting jokes or humorous anecdotes is a tempting way to try to make everyone feel more comfortable, but humor is usually closely turns with lag silences and pauses essay to language and culture.

A harmless story that makes colleagues laugh back home may confuse and embarrass foreigners who misunderstand the punch-line. Worse, a joke may inadvertently be perceived as vulgar or insulting. In many Asian cultures, for example, Confucian and Buddhist preoccupation with truth, sincerity, kindliness and politeness automatically eliminates humor techniques such as sarcasm, satire, exaggeration and parody.

The choice of linguistic register and tone affects the communication process profoundly, but differences in grammar, accents, intonation and degrees of candor make it difficult for an executive to be sure that the desired message is being sent or received in the intended manner.

Moreover, what comes across as respectful yet convincing at home can seem too direct or too indirect when communicating in a foreign culture. In practice, the international executive needs to speak more slowly, articulate more clearly yet quietly and avoid words and idioms that complicate meaning unnecessarily.

In addition, great attention needs to be given to understanding how a foreign counterpart expresses degrees of agreement or disagreement.

Body language can represent up to 80 percent of any message, and the codes for gestures, eye contact, facial expression, physical turns with lag silences and pauses essay and touching are often very different from country to country.

If one is the object of a gesture that is considered inappropriate at home, it is best to give the other party the benefit of the doubt, ask for a verbal clarification and perhaps politely inform the party of the mistake during an informal moment afterwards so that they may learn without feeling humiliated.

Respect is also shown by how eye contact is maintained. In many Western cultures, one is taught to look people in the eyes at all times, and averting the eyes often signifies a lack of sincerity or confidence. In Asiahowever, constant eye contact is considered rude and aggressive, and only the highest ranking male looks directly into another person's eyes. Customs concerning acceptable patterns of eye contact between men and women vary considerably, even in Western Europe, to say nothing of the Middle East or Asia.

As any poker player will testify, an expressionless face is part of the game. Grimaces suggesting anger, fear or desperation are the least desirable facial expressions, but sometimes even a smile can conceal anguish, embarrassment or ridicule.

Physical proximity and touching: Standing too close may make some Anglo-Saxons uncomfortable, but close proximity can usually be shrugged off. Another type of non-verbal communication is silence, the use and meaning of which varies greatly from culture to culture.

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In many Western cultures, a silent reaction to a statement or proposal suggests disagreement, displeasure or ignorance. Many Westerners feel obligated to respond more or less immediately, developing the point that has been raised and demonstrating their intelligence and enthusiasm with rhetorical genius.

Moreover, silence can be interpreted as a stratagem to unnerve. Rushing in to fill a silence may be considered pushy, impulsive and over-emotional. Turns with lag silences and pauses essay is not equated with failure to communicate, but is an integral part of social interaction.

What is not said is regarded as important, and pauses during a conversation are considered restful, friendly and appropriate. Talking a lot merely expresses turns with lag silences and pauses essay, perhaps egoism and arrogance.

In dealing with the Japanese, for example, it is often an individual, rather than the entire group, who is silent. If the silent person is the highest ranked Japanese executive at the meeting, his silence can be a good sign. By silently closing his eyes during the talks, he may well be communicating his approval of the negotiations. On the other hand, when a Japanese executive is silent, it might also mean he does not want to say something unpleasant.

It is a good strategy to note when the silence occurred, and return to the topic later, addressing the issue from a different angle. Different cultures use oral and visual communication in different ways, and they also listen in different ways.

Only then will they be interested in exchanging details and facts. Key guidelines for becoming an active listener are: Let the speaker finish his thought. Ignore distractions while listening. No matter how informal the situation, however, caution and cross-cultural awareness can help avoid making a gaff that is permanently recorded.

The style of such cover letters is usually concise, with differing degrees of opening and closing embellishment depending on culture and language. Additional commentary regarding the document sent is usually made by a follow-up call or e-mail message.

However, some cultures dislike memoranda and meeting minutes, considering them pedantic, inefficient and inherently confrontational. It is sometimes more acceptable to have either side prepare a concise summary and then compare notes. Fax cover sheets should clearly indicate the person s addressed and the total number of pages. Moreover, e-mail often gives a false sense of intimacy: Some countries are less Internet-dependant than the United States 8.

Language is a means of communication that comprises speaking, listening, writing, reading and seeing. However, many cultural factors complicate and enrich the actual use of any language, such that simply learning vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation does not guarantee effective cross-cultural communication. The way that a message is spoken, heard, written, read or seen can influence comprehension considerably.

The choice of language for oral and informal written communication depends, of course, on the parties involved. Communication becomes more difficult when additional members must be brought in who do not have the same level of international experience, if any.

Communication then may take place in several languages, used in different ways for turns with lag silences and pauses essay contexts. Dealing with language differences effectively: Be extra organized in order to avoid loosing focus during the translation process. Rolling out rusty language skills should be reserved for socializing when everyone can have a good laugh without feeling guilty or humiliated.

English is an important exception to this rule. Anglophones are accustomed to hearing new immigrants speaking their language and are infinitely patient with foreigners; they will only ask for clarification if they genuinely do not understand what is being said. In many ways, a not uncomfortable situation, since both parties are on equal ground and do not feel intimidated by a language that has become very accommodating of foreign inventiveness. Understanding and accuracy may, however, be a problem should either party take too many liberties.

Surprisingly challenging, as any roundtable with an American, an Englishman, an Australian, a South African and a Irishman illustrates. One native speaker and one non-native speaker. The non-native speaker may feel frustrated, intimidated and resentful. Choosing words carefully, speaking quietly but clearly and reducing physical gesticulation and facial contortion not only shows respect without false modesty or pomposity, but also invites the other party to listen more attentively and to focus on core information.

For some non-native speakers, the use of English represents an ideological compromise that causes hidden resentment of the economic and political power of the United States and of the colonial past of the British Empire. Reconciling individual style and cultural gaps. Every executive has an individual style of communicating, and the organization and tone of a meeting varies according to the agenda and the sector of activity.

The components to consider are: Speak clearly but quietly and choose words carefully. Even if the other party speaks the same language, they will need additional time to understand. Do not be afraid of silences during the conversation. Anticipate sector of activity-specific terminology and politely explain their meaning to the interpreter before the meeting starts, perhaps even providing a word list.