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Towards an effective legal framework for assisted reproductive technology in nigeria essay

Definition of reproductive health Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of reproductive disease or infirmity. Reproductive health deals with the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. Implicit in this last condition are the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as well as other methods of their choice for regulation of fertility which are not against the law, and the right of access to appropriate health care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.

Reproductive health includes sexual health, the purpose of which is the enhancement of life and personal relations, and not merely counselling and care related to reproduction and sexually transmitted diseases. The importance of reproductive health Reproductive health is a crucial part of general health and a central feature of human development.

  1. Such training materials must now be adapted to incorporate the concept of reproductive health and to assist the many categories of health care providers in responding to reproductive and sexual health needs in a more integrated way. One practical way of doing this would be the creation in countries of a database of information from all in-country agencies on project design, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, lessons learned and future programme plans.
  2. Poor attention to flood modelling and assessment of vulnerability to flooding The crucial gap in flood risk reduction in Nigeria is poor attention to flood modelling and assessment of vulnerability to flooding. Health, Development, and Human Rights.
  3. Apart from China which presently reputes as the most flood prone country in the world, characterized by recurrent perennial floods due to among other things, the influence of population growth and mainly the River Yangtze [ 93 ]. Such energy and creativity cannot be generated by sick, tired people, and consequently a healthy and active population becomes a prerequisite of social and economic development.
  4. In the US, UK and Netherland, it can be argued that this idea is underpinned by much profound measures for tackling flooding.

It is a reflection of health during childhood, and crucial during adolescence and adulthood, sets the stage for health beyond the reproductive years for both women and men, and affects the health of the next generation. The health of the newborn is largely a function of the mother's health and nutrition status and of her access to health care.

Reproductive health is a universal concern, but is of special importance for women particularly during the reproductive years. Although most reproductive health problems arise during the reproductive years, in old age general health continues to reflect earlier reproductive life events.

Men too have reproductive health concerns and needs though their general health is affected by reproductive health to a lesser extent than is the case for women. However, men have particular roles and responsibilities in terms of women's reproductive health because of their decision-making powers in reproductive health matters.

At each stage of life individual needs differ.

Failure to deal with reproductive health problems at any stage in life sets the scene for later health and developmental problems. Because reproductive health is such an important component of general health it is a prerequisite for social, economic and human development. The highest attainable level of health is not only a fundamental human right for all, it is also a social and economic imperative because human energy and creativity are the driving forces of development.

Such energy and creativity cannot be generated by sick, tired people, and consequently a healthy and active population becomes a prerequisite of social and economic development.

  • The present study has shown that flood risk reduction under the idea of living with floods integrates structural and nonstructural approaches which are underpinned by flood modelling;
  • UNICEF efforts in the area of adolescent health seek to build stronger dialogue and partnership among young people, parents, educators, health providers and community leaders on health, including reproductive health;
  • However, efforts so far at tackling the hazard seem limited mostly due to lack of data relating to flooding and other factors which are yet to be identified;
  • Appropriate services must be accessible and include information, education, counselling, prevention, detection and management of health problems, care and rehabilitation;
  • That flood challenged various stake holders, particularly the general public and local communities and Dutch government towards more effective strategies of mitigating the threats of flooding;
  • Sexual and reproductive behaviours are governed by complex biological, cultural and psychosocial factors.

What is new about the concept of reproductive health Reproductive health does not start out from a list of diseases or problems - sexually transmitted diseases, maternal mortality - or from a list of programmes - maternal and child health, safe motherhood, family planning.

Reproductive health instead must be understood in the context of relationships: The most significant achievement of the Cairo Conference was to place people firmly at the centre of development efforts, as protagonists in their own reproductive health and lives rather than as objects of external interventions.

The aim of interventions is to enhance reproductive health and promote reproductive rights rather than population policies and fertility control.

This implies the empowerment of women including through better access to education ; the involvement of women and young people in the development and implementation of programmes and services; reaching out to the poor, the marginalized and the excluded; and assuming greater responsibility for reproductive health on the part of men. How this concept of reproductive health differs from existing family planning and maternal and child health programmes Programmes dealing with various components of reproductive health exist in some form almost everywhere.

But they have usually been delivered in a separate way, unconnected to programmes dealing with closely interdependent topics. For example, the objectives, design and evaluation of family planning programmes were largely driven by a demographic imperative, without due consideration to related health issues such as maternal health or STD prevention and management.

Evaluation was largely in terms of quantity rather than quality - numbers of contraceptive acceptors as opposed to the ability and opportunity to make informed decisions about reproductive health issues. In general, such programmes exclusively targeted towards an effective legal framework for assisted reproductive technology in nigeria essay, taking little account of the social, cultural and intimate realities of their reproductive lives and decision-making powers.

They tended to serve only married people, excluding, in particular, young people. Services were rarely designed to serve men even though they have reproductive health concerns of their own, particularly with regard to sexually transmitted diseases. Moreover, the involvement of men in reproductive health is important because they have an important role to play as family decision-makers with regard to family size, family planning and use of health services.

A reproductive health approach would differ from a narrow family planning approach in several ways.

It would aim to build upon what exists and at the same time to modify current narrow, vertical programmes to ones in which every opportunity is taken to offer women and men a full range of reproductive health services in a linked way. Such programmes would recognize that dealing with one aspect of reproductive health can have synergistic effects in dealing with others. For example, management of infertility is difficult and expensive but it can be largely prevented through appropriate care during and after delivery and prevention and towards an effective legal framework for assisted reproductive technology in nigeria essay of STDs.

Promotion of breast-feeding has an impact on reproductive health in many ways - it helps prevent certain postpartum problems, delays the return to fertility, may help prevent ovarian and breast cancer, and improves neonatal health. Another important difference between existing programmes and those developed to respond to the new concept of reproductive health is the way in which people - particularly women and young people who are the most affected by reproductive health concerns - are involved in programme development, implementation and evaluation.

When women become more involved in programmes it becomes clearer that they have health concerns beyond motherhood and also that dealing with reproductive health involves a profound rethinking of the behavioural, social, gender and cultural dimensions of decision-making which affect women's reproductive lives. What reproductive health services include The precise configuration of reproductive health needs and concerns, and the programmes and policies to address them, will vary from country to country and will depend on an assessment of each country's situation and the availability of appropriate interventions.

Globally, however, both the epidemiological data and the expressed wishes of diverse constituencies indicate that reproductive health interventions are most likely to include attention to the issues of family planning, STD prevention and management and prevention of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity.

Appropriate services must be accessible and include information, education, counselling, prevention, detection and management of health problems, care and rehabilitation. Reproductive health strategies should be founded first and foremost on the health of individuals and families. In the operationalization of the strategies all reproductive health services must assume their responsibility to offer accessible and quality care, while ensuring respect for the individual, freedom of choice, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy in all reproductive matters.

They should focus special attention on meeting the reproductive health needs of adolescents. Factors affecting reproductive health Reproductive health affects, and is affected by, the broader context of people's lives, including their economic circumstances, education, employment, living conditions and family environment, social and gender relationships, and the traditional and legal structures within which they live. Sexual and reproductive behaviours are governed by complex biological, cultural and psychosocial factors.

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Therefore, the attainment of reproductive health is not limited to interventions by the health sector alone. Nonetheless, most reproductive health problems cannot be significantly addressed in the absence of health services and medical knowledge and skills.

The status of girls and women in society, and how they are treated or mistreated, is a crucial determinant of their reproductive health. Educational opportunities for girls and women powerfully affect their status and the control they have over their own lives and their health and fertility.

Flooding and Flood Risk Reduction in Nigeria: Cardinal Gaps

The empowerment of women is therefore an essential element for health. Who is most affected by reproductive health problems Women bear by far the greatest burden of reproductive health problems.

Women are at risk of complications from pregnancy and childbirth; they also face risks in preventing unwanted pregnancy, suffer the complications of unsafe abortion, bear most of the burden of contraception, and are more exposed to contracting, and suffering the complications of reproductive tract infections, particularly sexually transmitted diseases STDs. Biological factors alone do not explain women's disparate burden. Their social, economic and political disadvantages have a detrimental impact on their reproductive health.

Young people of both sexes, are also particularly vulnerable to reproductive health problems because of a lack of information and access to services. How countries can identify reproductive health needs and assess priorities A number of countries have expressed the desire to move forward with a new and comprehensive approach to reproductive health. Support to national authorities in carrying out a systematic review of reproductive health needs at country level should focus on the importance of adding innovative and participatory approaches to more familiar epidemiological methodologies in which the process tends to be directed by experts and framed by biomedical approaches and indicators.

The identification of reproductive health needs, the determination of priorities and the development of programmatic responses to those needs should be conducted through an inclusive process, soliciting the perspectives of a range of groups concerned with reproductive health including, for example, women's health advocates, youth groups, health care providers at the periphery as well as at the central level, health planners, researchers, and non-governmental organizations.

Several instruments have already been developed for situation analysis and needs assessment in different components of reproductive health, for example, family planning and safe motherhood. However, in the context of the new approach to reproductive health it is necessary to ensure that assessment and prioritization reflect people's concerns as agreed at national and local levels and not the priorities of agencies or donors.

It is important to avoid duplication and to develop tools that are appropriate for countries themselves. A number of such instruments already exist and are widely used. However, it is important to ensure compatibility and consistency among the various instruments currently available.

Ivf reproductive technology essay

Similar considerations apply to the selection of priorities for action in reproductive health. Criteria for identification of priority problems should include not only importance - prevalence, severity, public concern, government commitment, impact on family, community and development - but also the feasibility of addressing them - known interventions, cost-effectiveness, availability towards an effective legal framework for assisted reproductive technology in nigeria essay financing, human resources and adequate equipment and supplies.

Human resources for reproductive health The operationalization of the new concept of reproductive health will mean changes in skills, knowledge, attitudes and management. People will have to work together in new ways. Health care providers will have to collaborate with others, including NGOs, women's health advocates, and young people. Managerial and administrative changes will also be needed because integrated services can impose, at least initially, greater burdens on already over-stretched staff and require attention to planning and logistics in order to ensure availability and continuity of services.

Training for reproductive health workers will need to focus on improving both technical and interpersonal skills. Additional training, particularly in counselling skills and in ways of reaching out to under-served groups will be essential elements of such training. The back-up and support of functioning referral systems will be essential elements if the full range of reproductive health concerns is to be adequately addressed.

Monitoring and evaluation Monitoring and evaluation of reproductive health takes place at two levels - the country and the global level. Globally, the international community has already defined a number of indicators relevant to reproductive health, including: Reproductive health indicators should cover not only quantitative indicators such as those listed above, but also some qualitative indicators, such as women's satisfaction with services, perceptions of quality, maternal discomfort and dissatisfaction, perceived reproductive morbidities, opportunities for choice, and enabling environments.

Data collection should be seen as a means towards an end rather than an end in itself. It will, therefore, be necessary to focus increasingly on performance-based measures such as maternal audit, surveillance and other process measures. Such programme indicators should be useful for policy-making and be generated through data collection procedures that are useful for programme management at the level at which the data are collected. All data collection efforts should be sustainable by the national authorities and able to take into account new developments in terms of strategic thinking and implementation.

  • Evaluation was largely in terms of quantity rather than quality - numbers of contraceptive acceptors as opposed to the ability and opportunity to make informed decisions about reproductive health issues;
  • The production of progesterone inhibits the LH and FSH hormones which in a cycle without pregnancy causes the corpus luteum to atrophy, and menses to begin the cycle again;
  • The UN Resident Coordinator system can mobilize increased energies and resources for women's education both in-school and out-of-school youth groups, workplaces, adult literacy and income generation groups etc;
  • Researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, US, say that if eggs are newly created each month in humans as well, all current theories about the aging of the female reproductive system will have to be overhauled, although at this time this is simply conjecture;
  • However, in the context of the new approach to reproductive health it is necessary to ensure that assessment and prioritization reflect people's concerns as agreed at national and local levels and not the priorities of agencies or donors;
  • Arguably, institutional framework with a complex chain of action which characterizes Nigeria is not ideal for a country with urgent needs to address the threats of flooding.

In addition, all indicators should be valid, objectively measurable and reliable. Advocate for the concept of reproductive and sexual health The Resident Coordinator system can promote recognition of the concept of reproductive health as central to general health and human development. This implies the integration of reproductive health and reproductive rights into all related development priorities and programmes.

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Resident Coordinators should be aware that reproductive health is a dynamic and continuously evolving concept. Therefore, information sharing and collaboration will be needed to ensure that the approaches developed and implemented are based on the most recent and relevant information available and on the evolving experiences of those working in the field.

The Country Strategy Note should be used as a vehicle to promulgate this vision more widely. Promote multi-sectoral action Reproductive health is a health issue but encompasses more than biomedical aspects and goes beyond the health sector. The determinants of reproductive ill-health lie in poverty, gender and other forms of inequity, social injustice, marginalization and development failures.

All sectors affect and are affected by reproductive health. The Resident Coordinator system can advocate that all agencies and all sectors have roles and responsibilities in promoting reproductive health. One of the key actions needed to improve reproductive health is the empowerment of women especially through education.

The UN Resident Coordinator system can mobilize increased energies and resources for women's education both in-school and out-of-school youth groups, workplaces, adult literacy and income generation groups etc. Stimulate adherence to essential principles The Resident Coordinator system can disseminate the underlying principles which must serve as a guide to action in reproductive health.

  1. Maternal health and the measurement trap. UNICEF support to women's health activities emphasises working with women's organisations at the community level.
  2. More research should be directed towards developing bespoke hydrologic and hydraulic flood models for simulating flood hazard and other hydrological parameters in Nigeria. The rationale for using such an incremental approach is that it makes the most efficient and cost-effective use of existing staff and health-care facilities.
  3. The widespread flooding in Nigeria requires less complex framework with reduced chain of action and increased authority and responsibilities towards flooding and ways of managing its threats, as is the case in the United States, UK and Netherlands where a centralized authority such as FEMA, Environment Agency EA and Rijkswaterstaat respectively operates within the framework of institutional approach with more abundant resources towards addressing the challenges of flood risk. It is believed that EPD will develop its programme further to include the present and emerging issues related to reproductive health in its various population environment, and other educational programmes through effective training and communication strategies to meet the needs of developing and developed countries.
  4. Ethics publishes scholarly work in moral, political, and legal philosophy. Workers' organizations are strengthened to promote and implement workers' education on population, reproductive health and gender issues.

These are the guiding principles of human rights, equality and gender equity, and placing people at the centre of development efforts.

Operational principles for the implementation of reproductive health policies and programmes include participatory processes, involvement of multiple perspectives and multi-sectoral action. The Resident Coordinator system is well-placed to ensure the involvement of different sectors and the participation of all those concerned with reproductive health.

Where there are major regional, ethnic, religious or cultural variations within countries, these must be taken into account in the development of reproductive health strategies.

Where certain groups have difficulties in making their voices heard, the Resident Coordinator system can play a role in providing a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences. Foster national ownership A global reproductive health strategy must be translated into approaches that are country-driven. Implementation of reproductive health programmes is the sovereign right of each country, in a way that is consistent with national laws and development priorities, with full respect for religious, cultural and ethical values and in harmony with universally recognized human rights.

The Resident Coordinator system can ensure that the development of strategies, policies and programmes is a nationally owned process and that decisions taken reflect national priorities and are not dictated by external agencies.