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The segregation of americas school system essay

  • In the case of Plessy v;
  • Thus, in the post-emancipation South freed blacks gained access for the first time to public facilities such as public transportation and health and welfare services;
  • Rather than erasing their pride in being black or expressing a desire to be like whites , African Americans gained an even greater respect for their race through participation in the Civil Rights Movement and their efforts to shatter Jim Crow;
  • This means that the children who most depend on the public schools for any chance in life are concentrated in schools struggling with all the dimensions of family and neighborhood poverty and isolation;
  • Thus, in the post-emancipation South freed blacks gained access for the first time to public facilities such as public transportation and health and welfare services;
  • Historians Debate In 1955, C.

During the era of slavery, most African Americans resided in the Southmainly in rural areas. Under these circumstances, segregation did not prove necessary as the boundaries between free citizens and people held in bondage remained clear. Furthermore, Before the Civil War, segregation existed mainly in cities in both the North and the South. However, free people of color, located chiefly in cities and towns of the North and Upper Southexperienced segregation in various forms.

By the time the Supreme Court ruled in Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857 that African Americans were not U. When allowed into auditoriums and theaters, blacks occupied separate sections; they also attended segregated schools. Most churches, too, were segregated. Reconstruction after the Civil War posed serious challenges to white supremacy and segregation, especially in the South where most African Americans continued to live.

The abolition of slavery in 1865, followed by ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment 1868 extending citizenship and equal protection of the law to African Americans and In the years immediately after the Civil War segregation eased somewhat. Yet the possibilities of blacks sharing public conveyances and public accommodations with whites increased during the period after 1865. Blacks obtained access to streetcars and railroads on an integrated basis. Indeed, many transportation companies favored integration because they did not want to risk losing black business.

African Americans did gain admission to desegregated public accommodations, but racial segregation, or Jim Crow as it became popularly known, remained the custom. The term Jim Crow originated from the name of a character in an 1832 minstrel show, where whites performed in black face.

Passage by Congress of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which barred the segregation of americas school system essay discrimination in public accommodations, provides evidence of the continued presence of segregation and the need to rectify it. By this time, the interracial Reconstruction governments had fallen in the South and the federal government had retreated from strong enforcement of black civil rights. With white-controlled governments back in power, the situation of southern blacks gradually deteriorated.

To maintain solidarity and remove possible political threats, white southerners initiated a series of efforts to reduce further African American citizenship rights and enforce Jim Crow.

By the 1890s it had become entrenched.

These laws forced blacks to sit in the back of the bus, on separate cars in trains, and in the balcony at theaters, for example. From this period on, segregation became a rigid legal system separating the races from cradle to grave—including segregated hospital facilities, cemeteries, and everything in between—no longer tolerating any flexibility in the racial interactions that had previously existed.

Why did Jim Crow become entrenched in the 1890s? The third-party Populist uprising of that decade threatened conservative Democratic rule in the South. Many of those blacks who could still vote, and the number was considerable, joined the Populist insurgency. To check this political rebellion and prevent blacks from wielding the balance of power in close elections, southern Democrats appealed to white solidarity to defeat the Populists, whipped up anti-Negro sentiment, disfranchised African Americans, and imposed strict de jure by law segregation.

In the North, while legislation combated segregation, African Americans were still kept separate and apart from whites. In contrast with the South, in the late 1880s and early 1890s, Indiana, Nebraska, Ohio, Michigan, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and New York all adopted laws that prohibited racial discrimination in public facilities.

Yet blacks encountered segregation in the North as well. Rather than through de jure segregation, most northern whites and blacks lived in separate neighborhoods and attended separate schools largely through de facto segregation. This kind of segregation resulted from the fact that African Americans resided in distinct neighborhoods, stemming from insufficient income as well as a desire to live among their own people, as many ethnic groups did.

However, blacks separated themselves not merely as a matter of choice or custom.

  • Much of the prior research literature in the area of school segregation agrees that, beginning in the 1990s, there was a reversal of national trends toward integration;
  • This racial segregation in education has to be solved efficiently really soon before it gets even worst;
  • A new generation of leaders, many of them military veterans or black college graduates , challenged Jim Crow and disfranchisement;
  • From this period on, segregation became a rigid legal system separating the races from cradle to grave—including segregated hospital facilities, cemeteries, and everything in between—no longer tolerating any flexibility in the racial interactions that had previously existed;
  • This requires a series of questions.

Instead, realtors and landlords steered blacks away from white neighborhoods and municipal ordinances and judicially enforced racial covenants signed by homeowners kept blacks out of white areas. In 1896, the federal government sanctioned racial segregation, fashioning the constitutional rationale for keeping the races legally apart.

A Return to School Segregation in America?

In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson was based upon a belief in white supremacy. In its decision the majority of the court concluded that civil rights laws could not change racial destiny. Local and state authorities never funded black education equally nor did African Americans have equal access to public accommodations.

School resegregation, race and America’s future: Recent research

To make matters worse, In the South segregation prevailed unabated from the 1890s to the 1950s. For the next fifty years racial segregation prevailed, reinforced by disfranchisement, official coercion, and vigilante terror.

In addition, starting in 1913 with the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, who had close ties to the South, the federal government imposed racial segregation in government offices in Washington, D. Roosevelt in the 1930s.

The struggle against Nazi racism in Europe called attention to racism in America. The war had exposed the horrors of Nazi racism; non-white nations in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia struggled to end colonial rule ; and scientists no longer accepted the notion of superior and inferior races.

In 1948, President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order desegregating the armed forces, thus reversing a longstanding practice. In 1954, the Supreme Court justices in Brown v. Nevertheless, the Brown ruling signaled only a first step, and it took another decade and a mass movement for civil rights for African Americans to tear down the racist edifices of segregation in the South.

Guiding Student Discussion The challenge is to explain to students the reasons for and the legacy of segregation. Explaining segregation to students is a lot more difficult because of the progress made since the Civil Rights Movement. Now that an African American has been elected president of the United States, segregation seems as outmoded and distant a practice as watching black and white television.

Thus, the major challenge is to explain to students the reasons for and the legacy of segregation.

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This requires a series of questions. The first question to ask is when did racial segregation begin? The importance of this question helps in gauging the potency and endurance of racism as a feature of American history. If segregation began Students should understand that segregation is embedded deeply in America's past. The evidence points in this direction. Before the Civil War, free Negroes in the North encountered segregation in schools, public accommodations, and the military.

In 1849, the Supreme Court of Massachusetts in Roberts v. City of Boston held that the state could require separate and equal schools for Negroes without violating the right of equality in the Massachusetts Constitution.

Segregation continued to exist after the Civil War and spread to the South once slaves were emancipated. Still, it is one thing to confirm that segregation Students should understand the role the federal government played in establishing and the segregation of americas school system essay segregation.

What seems unique about race relations from the 1870s to the early 1890s was its porousness: Moreover, blacks still had the right to vote and could wield influence in public affairs. This changed in the 1890s, and teachers should make clear the decisive role of the federal government in contributing to the establishment of hardcore segregation in the South. Thus, Jim Crow did not come about just through individual acts of prejudice but required government intervention from the North as well as the South.

Without the official Students should understand that Jim Crow was not simply a matter of individual acts of prejudice. It required government sanction. Despite complicity from the North, the harshest and most long-lasting forms of segregation occurred in the South.

School segregation Essay

Why were white southerners so adamant in maintaining segregation? Students should comeSegregation was intended to enforce and underscore the subordinate position of blacks in American society.

Southern whites considered this system of vital importance because of the vast majority of African Americans lived in the South in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Separate was never equal nor was it meant to be. Segregation was intended to debase African Americans, strip them of their dignity, reinforce their inequality, and maintain a submissive agricultural labor force.

In this way, you can point out to students that the southern United States from the 1890s through the 1960s was similar in many ways to South Africa during its Apartheid Era.

  1. African Americans as diverse politically as Booker T. By this time, the interracial Reconstruction governments had fallen in the South and the federal government had retreated from strong enforcement of black civil rights.
  2. Yet blacks encountered segregation in the North as well.
  3. It required government sanction.
  4. The changing demographics in the state paired with a lack of diversity-focused policies which include subpar transportation systems for students and restrictive admissions standards is one of the factor that caused the increasing segregation of public school students. The reason of privilege is poverty isolation and racism.
  5. Later on in 1964, the Civil Rights Act ended the laws regarding the segregation in the country.

White men established segregation to keep black men from having sexual relations with white women. Viewing miscegenation as the ultimate threat to the perpetuation of their superior racial stock, they often resorted to lynching black men for allegedly raping white women.

In doing so, white men not only reinforced their control over blacks but also white women. They sought to maintain the virtue and chastity of their the segregation of americas school system essay and daughters, reinforcing their patriarchal roles as husband, father, and ultimately the segregation of americas school system essay of their communities.

However, it can be debated whether the real issue was sexual purity or power, for many white southern men both during slavery and Jim Crow actively pursued clandestine sexual relations with black women, Segregation grew out of fear and a desire to control. Nevertheless, this fear of miscegenation, whether real or imagined, reinforced Jim Crow. White southerners were adamant about maintaining school segregation, particularly in the early grades, because they did not want little white girls to socialize with black boys, which might lead to more intimate relations as they turned into teenagers and young adults.

Woolworth store, Greensboro, North Carolina, site of 1960 lunch counter sit-in. This fear of sexual contact also applied to other areas, and the most interesting one that students should consider relates to department store lunch counters. Ask your students what they see as the difference between the two and you will probably find, as I have, that they discern that sitting down to eat was seen as a social activity that in the racialized South had sexual connotations, whereas walking around a store or standing in line did not have the same meaning.

How did African Americans respond to Jim Crow and did they view separation and segregation in the same way? Having students Students should understand the difference between voluntary separation and segregation.

Following the Civil War, blacks formed their own schools, churches, and civic organizations over which they exercised control that provided independence from white authorities, including their former masters. African Americans took great pride in the institutions they built in their communities. African Americans as diverse politically as Booker T. Washington in the 1890sMarcus Garvey in the 1920sW. DuBois in the 1930s advocated that blacks concentrate on promoting self-help within their communities and develop their own economic, Integration weakened some black community institutions.

Ironically, one of the unintended side effects of racial integration in the second half of the twentieth century was the erosion of longstanding black business and educational institutions that served African-Americans during Jim Crow. Students can then see that in contrast to voluntary separation and self-determination, segregation was coercive and grew out of attempts to maintain black subordination and second-class citizenship.

Sanctioned by the government, Jim Crow demeaned African Americans, denied them equal opportunity, and assigned them to the margins of public life.

How did African Americans challenge segregation and white supremacy? These are questions that historians still debate. My advice is to start before the usual launching point of Brown v. The continued migration of blacks to the North and West gave African Americans increased voting power to help pressure presidents from Harry Truman on to pass civil rights legislation that would aid their family, friends, and neighbors remaining in the South.