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Sir arthur keith essays on human evolution

Career[ edit ] A leading figure in the study of human fossilshe became President of the Royal Anthropological Institute. The latter role stimulated his interest in the subject of human evolution, leading to the publication of his book A New Theory of Human Evolution, in which he supported the idea of group selection.

Where others had postulated that physical separation could provide a barrier to interbreeding, allowing groups to evolve along different lines, Keith introduced the idea of cultural differences as providing a mental barrier, emphasising territorial behaviour, and the concept of the 'in-group' and 'out-group'.

Man had evolved, he claimed, through his tendency to live in small competing communities, sir arthur keith essays on human evolution tendency which was at root determined by racial differences in his 'genetic substrate'. Writing just after World War II he particularly emphasised the racial origins of anti-Semitismand in 'A New Theory of Evolution' he devoted a chapter to the topics of anti-Semitism and Zionism in which he argued that Jews have survived by developing a particularly strong sense of community between Jews worldwide based around cultural practices rather than homeland, while applying the 'dual code' in such a way that perceived persecution strengthened their sense of superiority and cohesion.

He is also famous for discovering the sinoatrial nodethe component of the heart which makes it beat, with his student Martin Flack in 1906. He was educated at Gordon's College in Aberdeen. He obtained a Bachelor of Medicine at the University of Aberdeen in 1888.

He travelled to Siam on a gold mining trip in 1889 where he gathered plants for Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in London in his capacity as a plant collector assistant for the Botanical Survey of the Malay Peninsula. It was at Aberdeen where Keith won the first Struthers Prize in 1893 for his demonstration of ligaments in humans and other apes.

In 1894, he was made a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

Arthur Keith

In 1908, as he says in 'A New Theory of Evolution', he was 'put in charge of the vast treasury of things housed in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons', which brought about a shift in his interest from anatomy to the pursuit of 'the machinery of human evolution'. Keith was editor of the Journal of Anatomy between 1915 and 1936 and elected President of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1918 to 1920. In 1932, he helped found a research institute in DowneKentwhere he worked until his death.

In 1899 he married Cecilia Caroline Gray d. They had no children. He died in Downe House in Kent on 7 January 1955. European hypothesis[ edit ] British anthropologists Keith and Grafton Elliot Smith were both fixed on European origin of humankind and were in opposition to models of Asian and African sir arthur keith essays on human evolution. The British anthropologists of the time, who firmly believed in the European hypothesis, did not accept finds outside of their own soil. The lecture contained as its abstract: The three primary racial groups within the human species are the Caucasian, mongoloid and negroid.

From analogy with cross-breeding in animals and plants, and from experience of human cross-breeding, it can be asserted that inter-marriage between members of the three groups produces inferior progeny.

Hence racial segregation is to be recommended. However, the different races can still assist, and co-operate with, each other, in the interests of peace and harmony.

A Scientific Forgery, written by the anthropologist Frank Spencer after completing the research of Ian Langham an Australian historian of science who suspected Keith, and died in 1984explored the link between Keith and Charles Dawson and suggested it was Keith who prepared the fake specimens for Dawson to plant. Phillip Tobias details the history of the investigation of the hoax, dismissing other theories, and listing inconsistencies in Keith's statements and actions.

Essentially he argues that the cold unwelcoming climate of Britain selected those who came here for a special ability to store food and supplies for the winter — those who didn't died out. This 'capitalism' provided a secure way of life with time to think and experiment, for a population that had been selected for inventiveness and resourcefulness. Out of this special population sprang the Industrial Revolution, centred on the colder Northern counties of England like Lancashire and Yorkshire where the high-tech developments of the time took place in spinning and weaving.

This is a rare book today, which does not appear to be available as a reprint. Under the control of reason, prejudice has to be given a place in the regulation of human affairs". Keith also cites Adam Smiththe theoretical father of capitalism, who in his 'The Theory of Moral Sentiments' 1759 regarded prejudices as part of human nature, to both preserve human life and for the welfare of the common good.

Keith concludes that the idea that prejudices "are not artificially acquired, but have been grafted deeply into our natures for particular purposes" is not merely a discovery of Darwinism. Indeed, from a Christian perspective, these arational feelings must serve some higher survival purpose and are so largely present in life, that they all can't be dismissed as "sin". His particular theory emphasises the ideas of 'In-group versus Out-group', and the 'Amity-Enmity Complex'.

  1. It was at Aberdeen where Keith won the first Struthers Prize in 1893 for his demonstration of ligaments in humans and other apes. Sir arthur keith 1866-1955 was a scottish anatomist and physical anthropologist who specialized in the study of human evolutionarthur keith was born on february 5.
  2. European hypothesis[ edit ] British anthropologists Keith and Grafton Elliot Smith were both fixed on European origin of humankind and were in opposition to models of Asian and African origin.
  3. Phillip Tobias details the history of the investigation of the hoax, dismissing other theories, and listing inconsistencies in Keith's statements and actions. Evolution and ethics, [arthur keith] on amazoncom free shipping on qualifying offers the purpose and ultimate end of human life, christian ethics versus.
  4. My deliberate opinion is that racial characters are more strongly developed in the Jews than in any other race. The quote appears to stem from a 1947 article about—not by—Arthur Keith, in the magazine The Nineteenth Century, [23] which was then misattributed.
  5. Science quotes by sir arthur keith 2 quotes human nature, as manifested in tribalism and nationalism from essays on human evolution 1946, 1947 , 76.

One chapter, entitled The Jews as a Nation and as a Race, tackles what is often referred to as 'the Jewish Question', postulating that the Jews are a special case of a race that has evolved to live as the 'out-group' amongst other races, developing a special culture that enables it to survive by means of strong cultural traditions that bind the 'in-group' with unusual loyalty and defensiveness.

Such claims are very controversial today. Physical copies of the book are difficult to obtain as it would seem that original copies exist only in small numbers, and that modern sir arthur keith essays on human evolution do not exist.

However, an online reprint of the book is available see link below. An Autobiography 1950 [ edit ] Keith wrote his memoir when he was 84, because "a short time hence someone will have to write my obituary notice, so that what I set down now may then prove of service".

Nonetheless, the lengthy volume was deemed "completely unexciting. Events of sentimental interest and happenings of pure routine get almost equal emphasis. In this book, written just before he died, Keith gives a lot of detail about Darwin's family life, as well as his career. Prediction of the future[ edit ] In September 1931, Keith and other prominent individuals of the time were invited by The New York Times to make a prediction concerning the world in eighty years time in the future, in 2011, to celebrate the paper's eightieth anniversary since its establishment in 1851.

Keith's prediction warned against overspecialization: Eighty years ago medicine was divided among three orders of specialists — physicians, surgeons, and midwives. Now there are more than fifty distinct special branches for the treatment of human ailments. It is this aspect of life — its ever growing specialization — which frightens me. The explanation I offer is that resentment is unpleasant to make sure that it will be put into execution, so giving relief by gratification.

He who feels generous towards his enemy, and more especially if he feels forgiveness towards him, has in reality abandoned the code of enmity and so has given up his place in the turmoil of evolutionary competition.

Hence the benign feeling of perfect peace that descends on him. The use of the dual code, as we have seen, is a mark of an evolving race.

My deliberate opinion is that racial characters are more strongly developed in the Jews than in any other race. He has failed, not because the theory of evolution is false, but because he has made three fatal blunders in its application.

  1. Indeed, from a Christian perspective, these arational feelings must serve some higher survival purpose and are so largely present in life, that they all can't be dismissed as "sin". Sir arthur keith 1866-1955 was a scottish anatomist and physical anthropologist who specialized in the study of human evolution arthur keith was born on february 5.
  2. Eighty years ago medicine was divided among three orders of specialists — physicians, surgeons, and midwives. A series of interconnecting essays by a british anthropologist, which are concerned with man's evolution and morality, and in the light of present day history, refute.
  3. His particular theory emphasises the ideas of 'In-group versus Out-group', and the 'Amity-Enmity Complex'.
  4. Out of this special population sprang the Industrial Revolution, centred on the colder Northern counties of England like Lancashire and Yorkshire where the high-tech developments of the time took place in spinning and weaving.

The first was in forcing the pace of evolution among his own people; he raised their warlike passions to such a heat that the only relief possible was that of aggressive war. His second mistake lay in his misconception of the evolutionary value of power.

All that a sane evolutionist demands of power is that it should be sufficient to guarantee the security of a nation; more than that is an evolutionary abuse of power. His third and greatest mistake was his failure to realize that such a monopoly of power meant insecurity for Britain, Russia, and America.

His three great antagonists, although they do not preach the doctrine of evolution, are very consistent exponents of its tenets. Evolution and Ethics, New York: Putnam's Sons, 1947229. We believe it because the only alternative is special creation, and that is unthinkable. Keith died in 1955, some four years before the 100th anniversary of Darwin's work, so that he was clearly not available to write an introduction for the centennial edition this was actually done by William Robin Thompson.

The quote appears to stem from a 1947 article about—not by—Arthur Keith, in the magazine The Nineteenth Century, [23] which was then misattributed.