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Overview of the tangshan earthquake history essay

Population growth and increasing urbanization in earthquake-prone areas suggest that earthquake impacts on human populations will increase in the coming decades. Recent large earthquakes affecting large populations in Japan, Haiti, Chile and New Zealand are evidence of this trend and also illustrate significant variations in outcomes such damage and mortality levels. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of earthquakes on human populations in terms of mortality, injury and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes.

This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Data on the impact of earthquakes were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to mid 2009 of earthquake events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications, ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between earthquake mortality and characteristics using STATA 11.

  • From this general review of 395 articles specific to earthquake events meeting the aforementioned subject focus criteria were identified for full review;
  • Each title was screened by two reviewers and was retained if either or both reviewers established that inclusion criteria were met.

From 1980 through 2009, there were a total of 372,634 deaths range 314,634-412,599995,219 injuries range: Inconsistent reporting across data sources suggests that the numbers injured and affected are likely underestimates. Findings from a systematic review of the literature indicate that the primary cause of earthquake-related death was trauma due to building collapse and, the very young and the elderly were at increased mortality risk, while gender was not consistently associated with mortality risk.

Strategies to mitigate the impact of future earthquakes should include improvements to the built environment and a focus on populations most vulnerable to mortality and injury.

Tangshan earthquake of 1976

The funding body played no role in the design, writing or decision to publish this manuscript. Introduction Earthquakes were responsible for an estimated 1.

Earthquakes are usually caused by slippage on a fault overview of the tangshan earthquake history essay to built up friction between tectonic plates but can also be caused by volcanic eruptions or manmade explosions 4. Millions of earthquakes occur each year, though only a small proportion is strong enough to be felt and even fewer cause damage. Earthquake magnitude measures the energy released by an earthquake and is described by the moment magnitude scale, which is a logarithmic scale, so that a magnitude 5 earthquake is about 10 times less powerful than a 6, and 100 times less that a magnitude 7.

Earthquake impact is assessed by the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, which describes the severity of damages from the event on a scale from I to XII, with I being no damage and XII being complete destruction with no surviving structures.

Building design, geography and development indicators are important factors in earthquake vulnerability. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of earthquakes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and to identify country and event characteristics factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impacts of natural disasters, the others being volcanoes, floods, tsunamis, and cyclones. Methods The impact of earthquakes events was summarized using two methods, a historical review of earthquake events, and a systematic literature review for publications relating to the human impacts of earthquakes with a focus on mortality, injury, and displacement.

Historical Event Review A historical database of significant earthquakes between 1980 and 2009 was created. Four publically available data sources were used to create the most complete possible listing of events, allow for inclusion of both human and geophysical factors, and enable cross checking.

Earthquakes occurring in uninhabited areas that did not cause injury or death were removed. The final list comprised 953 earthquakes occurring between 1980 and 2009; information on mortality, injury or displacement was reported by one or more sources in 738 events. The following outcome categories were used to assess risk factors for earthquake-related mortality: All covariates were significantly associated with earthquake mortality in the univariate analysis and were subsequently included in a multinomial logistic regression model to assess the adjusted odds of mortality at a given level as compared to events with no deaths.

Analyses were performed using Stata Statistical Software, Version 11. Following the systematic review, a hand search was conducted to identify relevant articles published after the initial search thru October 2012.

  • Inconsistent reporting across data sources suggests that the numbers injured and affected are likely underestimates;
  • The death toll, thought to be one of the largest in recorded history , was officially reported as 242,000 persons, but it may have been as high as 655,000;
  • A total of 4,873 articles were retained for abstract review;
  • Each title was screened by two reviewers and was retained if either or both reviewers established that inclusion criteria were met.

One search was done for all the five natural hazards described in this set of papers. This paper describes the results for earthquakes. The key word search included natural hazard snatural disaster svolcano svolcanic, volcanic eruption, seismic event, earthquake scyclone styphoon shurricane stropical storm sflood sflooding, mudslide stsunami sand tidal wave s.

Results from the four databases were combined and duplicates excluded to yield a total of 9,958 articles. Title screening was performed to identify articles that were unrelated to natural disasters or human populations. Each title was screened by two reviewers and was retained if either or both reviewers established that inclusion criteria were met. A total of 4,873 articles were retained for abstract review. During abstract screening articles that met one or more of the following criteria were excluded: Each abstract was screened by two reviewers and was retained if either or both reviewers established that inclusion criteria were met.

During the abstract review, included abstracts were coded for event type, timeframe, region, subject of focus, and vulnerable population focus.

  • The quake struck in late evening, with aftershocks continuing through the following morning;
  • The final list comprised 953 earthquakes occurring between 1980 and 2009; information on mortality, injury or displacement was reported by one or more sources in 738 events;
  • Population growth and increasing urbanization in earthquake-prone areas suggest that earthquake impacts on human populations will increase in the coming decades;
  • Articles discussing the impacts of natural disasters on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement were prioritized for review.

A total of 3,687 articles were retained for full article review. Articles discussing the impacts of natural disasters on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement were prioritized for review. From this general review of 395 articles specific to earthquake events meeting the aforementioned subject focus criteria were identified for full review. Upon full review, 150 articles were retained 143 that underwent standard data abstraction; seven that were identified as review articles Figure 1.

Articles that focused on risk factors for specific types of injuries primarily crush injuries and renal failure or deaths were excluded because they did not provide insight on overall risk factors for mortality or injury. Overview of the systematic literature review process for earthquakes Table 1: