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Outline of the sociocultural effects of migration social work essay

This chapter captures the workshop discussions of the effects of immigration and assimilation on social policies and programs, health, and education. Social Policy and Welfare 1 Immigration researchers disagree about many major issues that are essential for revising social policy, including the criteria used to admit immigrants and the extent of social supports required to ensure their successful integration.

More specific areas of disagreement include: All analysts agree that reliable answers to all of these questions are necessary for future policy initiatives concerned with employment, schooling, and income maintenance. Despite the many areas of disagreement among immigration experts, there is widespread consensus on three issues: Employment and Income Dynamics One of the most serious deficiencies in the area of immigration and economic inequality is the absence of information about income and employment dynamics among various segments of the foreign-born population.

Virtually all national estimates of immigrant employment, poverty, and welfare participation are based on data from the decennial census or the Current Population Survey. Although static measures of poverty status and welfare participation are useful for portraying aggregate trends and differentials in the prevalence of poverty in a given year, they do not illustrate the dynamics of income stratification processes.

These tasks cannot be accomplished with currently existing data because administrative records on program participation seldom include nativity identifiers, and because nationally representative longitudinal or cross-sectional surveys seldom provide sufficient detail on type of program participation, much less duration of 1 Page 30 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press.

Although the Survey of Income and Program Participation is suitable to address these questions and others about income and employment dynamics, items about immigrant status are now available only on the topical modules i. A review of the Survey of Income and Program Participation by a panel of the Committee on National Statistics Citro and Kalton, 1993 recommended a number of changes for improving the survey. Because it is the preeminent source of survey data on the use of public services, information from the survey has great potential for contributing to current debates about the use of welfare, medical care, and other social services by immigrants.

  • The National Academies Press;
  • Useful comparative studies of recent immigrants could be conducted that take advantage of the natural variation in welfare eligibility;
  • These programs have continued, with an emphasis on providing economic support to refugees;
  • Diaspora nowadays somehow no longer only centred on passive involuntary migration but evolved into some new concepts about trading diasporas in 1990s indicated any ethnic groups formed by network of trading communities living in dispersal and yet highly interdependent;
  • Essay format example to show you how to write an essay outline, it is important to examine the vitamin content of produce and its effect on the body;
  • The strength of this approach is that it combines different types of movements within a single framework and the theory is being criticizes as following a old myth of immobility and it is unreasonable to link mobility change to demographic transition.

But to serve current policy analysis requirements, information is needed on potentially illegal statuses—a difficult challenge for any survey research. Workshop discussion did not address problems of such data collection, but such enhancement of the survey is worth further consideration. A further limitation of these data are the relatively small sample sizes of the Asian and Hispanic populations, which preclude detailed analyses of specific nationality groups.

Further advances toward understanding the process of socioeconomic integration of immigrants require a longitudinal analysis of employment and income dynamics. This is essential to determine if rising inequality among various groups of immigrants and their native-born counterparts results from greater numbers experiencing transitory or chronic episodes of joblessness, poverty, and welfare dependence.

Studies of employment and income dynamics among immigrants should also help to clarify inconsistencies in current research regarding the relationship between length of U.

Longitudinal analyses of income and program participation among the foreign-born population are a necessary adjunct to policy because the program implications of transitory episodes of poverty and welfare participation differ appreciably from chronic dependence. The Context of Immigration Contextual analyses of immigrants' integration experiences are an important area of needed information.

In practical terms, this means that future national surveys of immigrants should not only permit subgroup analysis, but should also represent the social and economic spectrum of communities in which immigrants reside. Whereas assessments of economic well-being based on national samples are worthwhile for broad generalizations about income inequality among nationality groups, they are inadequate for portraying the contexts within which economic integration processes unfold.

Outline of the sociocultural effects of migration social work essay

Widely discrepant conclusions about the extent and nature of labor market competition between native-born and immigrant people illustrate the need to reconcile findings based on specific labor markets and those based on nationally representative analyses. The context for immigration involves the entrance and exit of immigrants. It is relatively easy to see the excellent opportunity for contextual studies presented by a case in which migration takes place and immigrants settle within an ethnic community.

Contextual studies are also important, however, when what is called the "quality" of immigrants is being studied. George Borjas compared recent immigration flows with those prior to 1965 and found a declining quality of immigrants in terms of assimilation and productivity. But the quality of an immigrant should be related to more than wages. Immigrants who came before 1965, many of whom were Europeans, came during a period of lower rates of immigration.

Recent flows are different. Education levels of immigrants vary, and the averages need to be used in context for good analyses to be done. An illustration of the importance of context is the case of Haitian children enrolled in poorer schools in Miami's inner city. The education and assimilation experiences of these children might have been more positive if they had not settled in Miami.

In summary, the context of immigration is important in research. Comparing Political and Economic Immigration Because systematic comparisons of political and economic migrants have not been undertaken, a third important area is improving understanding about whether and how the integration experiences of refugees and legal immigrants differ. Refugees undertake politically motivated migration, whereas immigrants have economic motivation, according to a perspective taken by some.

Although the distinction between political and economic migrants has been greatly overstated, there is little disagreement that the reception experienced by these two classes of immigrants is dramatically different. Existing research is inconclusive about the effects of resettlement assistance; it is not clear if such assistance facilitates or retards economic assimilation. A useful experiment to resolve this key policy question would compare two similar cohorts of immigrants who arrived at the same time from the same country.

The data needed to conduct even this simple exercise, which is fundamental for assessing the effects of resettlement assistance, are not available. Yet this exercise is particularly critical in the current climate of fiscal retrenchment. The reasoning behind sharply curtailing appropriations for resettlement assistance for refugees, as opposed to extending some form of resettlement assistance to all economic migrants, rests on a thin research base.

Page 32 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Nearly 3 million illegal aliens were granted legal status between 1987 and 1988, of whom more than 85 percent were from Mexico.

Summary of readings: Migration, Diaspora and Transnationalism Paper

Despite great interest within the policy research community in the effectiveness of employer sanctions and tighter border controls, there have been no comparable research initiatives to investigate the experiences of legalized immigrants. How well is the legalized population faring in the labor market relative to other groups of immigrants?

Did the change in legal status influence employment and welfare behavior? Although there has been much speculation about likely changes following the amnesty program, research initiatives have not matched the speculative curiosity. Until recently, no data were available to investigate research questions about the behavior of new immigrants under the legalization program. It is a nationally representative survey of immigrants granted amnesty under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. A second part of the survey was in the field in 1992 and should provide additional valuable data.

This survey should provide essential information about changes in employment and program participation, including the use of several in-kind programs such as food stamps that might be traced directly to a change in legal status. Analysis of these data is a high priority for evaluation of the behavioral consequences of legalization on welfare participation.

Research Issues Workshop discussions identified four areas in which better information is needed for the improvement of studies of federal programs and immigrant adjustment. First, improved data are needed about income and employment dynamics.

The Current Population Survey could benefit from special-purpose modules that include retrospective questions on changes in economic status. For the Survey on Income and Program Participation, it would be helpful to have a question on immigrant status included in an early wave of the interviewing and to include contextual variables in the survey data.

Second, comparative studies are needed on poverty and economic change for immigrants in different areas and cities. Workshop discussion suggested that it would be useful to have a set of comparative studies on immigrant adjustment, conducted with common variables, for a variety of metropolitan areas. Page 33 Share Cite Suggested Citation: A final area that warrants attention is the effect of the legal status, especially legalization, on immigrant adjustment.

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Perinatal Health 2 Research is needed to improve our understanding of an important, contemporary public health enigma: Current health data on specific immigrant groups are limited national-level vital statistics data lack information on immigration statusand immigrants' ethnic groups are often reported only for pan-ethnic categories Asians and Hispanics.

Still, pregnancy outcomes as measured either by birthweight or mortality are better among babies born to immigrant than to native-born mothers Eberstein, 1991. Similar results have been reported for Spanish-surname mothers in California Williams et al.

The risk of low birthweight was about four times higher for second-generation compared with first-generation primiparous women, and two times higher for second-generation compared with first-generation multiparous women. Earlier, Yu 1982 reported that Chinese-American women have lower fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates than women of European origin and those in other major ethnic and racial groups in the United States.

Yu also reported that the superior health profile of Chinese-origin infants was observed at every level of maternal education and for all maternal ages. Page 34 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The results are noteworthy because the Southeast Asians had the highest rates of poverty and fertility in the state, had experienced very high infant death rates prior to their arrival in the Unites States, lacked English proficiency, and had the latest onset of prenatal care of all ethnic groups.

Other Asian groups Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos and Hispanics mostly of Mexican origin also had lower infant death rates than whites, and much lower rates than those observed for Native Americans and blacks.

The groups with below-average infant mortality rates consist largely of immigrants. The evidence indicates that positive perinatal health outcomes among immigrant groups are a real phenomenon, worthy of further investigation. Are immigrant women superior health achievers, even when socioeconomic status is controlled and, if so, why?

What are the effects on pregnancy outcomes of a wide variety of sociocultural and biomedical risk factors for foreign-born and native-born women of diverse ethnic and racial groups?

Although there are significant differences by nativity and ethnicity in pregnant women's histories of smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse during pregnancy—behaviors that are deleterious to the infant's health at birth and that appear to be more prevalent among the native-born—such variables do not explain other independent effects of nativity and ethnicity on outcomes.

There is considerable complexity to carrying out research in an area in which immigration, assimilation, and health interact. Existing vital statistics by themselves will not provide the research answers; alternative sources of data are needed and should include qualitative information as well as new studies based on comparative longitudinal designs e.

If we are to add significantly to the store of knowledge and to develop a larger set of intervention options, such research and data are essential. Mental Health Intriguing questions have been raised by research on the mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States, including immigrants. In a review of mental health prevalence rates reported in research over the past two decades Vega and Rumbaut, 1991studies suggest that rapid acculturation does not necessarily lead to conventionally anticipated outcomes, i.

Instead, mental health studies suggest that assimmilation—in the various forms it can take—can itself be a traumatic process rather than a simple solution to the traumas of immigration. Significantly, among Mexican-Americans, immigrants had lower rates of lifetime major depression than native-born people of Mexican descent; and among Mexican immigrants, the higher the level of acculturation, the higher was the prevalence of various types of psychiatric disorder Burnam et al.

Furthermore, the native-born Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites were much more likely than immigrants to be drug abusers. Other suggestions for future research emerged from the workshop discussions.

Research should take the social and historical contexts of immigrants fully into account, in terms of entries, exits, and assimilation.

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And among nonimmigrant ethnic and racial groups, studies need to distinguish between different American-born generations how many generations have passed since the immigration? Moreover, research is needed to identify protective factors that appear to reduce mental health problems within diverse ethnic minority groups; recent findings show that certain immigrant groups exhibit lower symptom levels of psychiatric disorders than do majority group natives.

Longitudinal studies are especially needed to characterize and investigate stress and its temporal patterning among immigrant groups, including patterns of immigrant adaptation to specific conditions of life change and their psychological or emotional sequence. And, given the unprecedented racial and ethnic diversification of the U.

Educational Attainment The rapid surge of recent immigration has been accompanied by a rapid growth in the research literature on the educational attainment of immigrants; the research has concentrated predominantly on the educational levels of adult immigrants of working ages. Relatively little study has been given to the educational achievements of the U.

  • Fifth, most new immigrants in recent decades are members of racial and ethnic minorities;
  • Department of Health and Human Services has conducted a national survey of Southeast Asian refugees, which has proven invaluable for monitoring the economic progress of political immigrants;
  • Instead, mental health studies suggest that assimmilation—in the various forms it can take—can itself be a traumatic process rather than a simple solution to the traumas of immigration;
  • Although static measures of poverty status and welfare participation are useful for portraying aggregate trends and differentials in the prevalence of poverty in a given year, they do not illustrate the dynamics of income stratification processes.

The patterns of their educational attainment, language shift, and psychological adaptation cannot be predicted on the basis of their Page 36 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Research on the children of immigrants poses significant but so far unanswered theoretical and empirical questions.

What factors account for variations in successful English-language acquisition for the children of immigrants? What is the role of family factors encouragement of regular study and the setting of education and occupation goals, for example for educational attainment?

Available results from the limited studies available are suggestive. In a study of students in the San Diego high schools, lower grade point averages were noted for Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, and blacks than for all other students.