Term papers writing service


Hope and hiv medication and adherence essay

Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research http: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Background Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread.

  • The objective of this paper is to address this gap by presenting a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment;
  • To minimize literacy requirements, the program can "read" the questions to patients over attached headphones;
  • Measuring Adherence Clinicians working with patients on ART need an accurate and relatively simple method of assessing adherence in order to support its vital role in treatment outcomes;
  • Mean adherence during the study was 63;
  • Data Extraction Data were extracted using a set of 58 defined fields related to the design of the social media platform, social media user characteristics, use of the social media platform, benefits and disadvantages of using the social media platform, and study outcomes;
  • Measuring Adherence in Research Studies Clinical studies employ a number of methods, alone or in combination, to measure medication adherence.

Objective The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. Methods This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. Results The search identified 35 original research studies.

Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence.

Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV.

Social Media and HIV: A Systematic Review of Uses of Social Media in HIV Communication

The ability to share and receive information about HIV was the most commonly reported benefit of social media use and the most common challenges were related to technology.

Measures of frequency of use, satisfaction, and effects of use varied across studies. Conclusions Using social media to bridge communication among a diverse range of users, in various geographic and social contexts, may be leveraged through pre-existing platforms and with attention to the roles of anonymity and confidentiality in communication about HIV prevention and treatment. More robust research is needed to determine the effects of social media use on various health and social outcomes related to HIV.

Hope and hiv medication and adherence essay, social media, communication Introduction Social media platforms, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention and treatment efforts [ 1 - 4 ].

Importantly, social media provides users with the opportunity to generate, share, and receive information through bi- and multidirectional exchanges, which may transcend geographic borders and provide an opportunity for anonymity [ 5 - 8 ]. For example, individuals can seek and share information about specific prevention strategies [ 412 ], engage in dialog about HIV research [ 13 ], and leverage support for issues such as medication adherence and emotional coping for living with HIV [ 14 - 17 ].

Additionally, the increased social support provided by social media has been shown to improve treatment adherence and access to HIV testing and prevention services [ 1819 ], and assist with coping with HIV-related stigma [ 17 ].

Social media use among key populations affected by the HIV epidemic, including men who have sex with men MSM [ 20 - 24 ], racial and ethnic minorities [ 25 ], and adolescents [ 2627 ] is increasing, and studies demonstrate that these groups use social media to form social ties, access health information and emotional support, and build a sense of community with peers [ 28 - 32 ].

  1. An example of a commonly used technique for assessing self-reported adherence can be found at the end of this section.
  2. When compared with objective measures such as MEMS caps and unannounced pill counts, self-assessment is a less sensitive measure of nonadherence ie, overestimates adherence. Measures of frequency of use, satisfaction, and effects of use varied across studies.
  3. Mean adherence during the study was 63. Social media platforms discussed in the studies included a variety of communication features, such as discussion facilitators, directed or guided communication, and chat features.

The widespread use of social media represents an important avenue for communication about HIV [ 3738 ]. Further, as the globalization of HIV and its presence in more geographically distant and underserved communities increases, social media provides an opportunity to extend the reach of HIV prevention and treatment efforts.

Currently lacking, however, is a thorough examination of the various users, platforms, and approaches to using social media to communicate about HIV. The objective of this paper is to address this gap by presenting a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment.

This examination can inform critical next steps to ensure appropriate use of social media to reach and engage those most affected by HIV in their local milieu.

Background

The review included all study designs and study methods, including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies. The literature search was conducted on February 19, 2014, using the following 7 electronic databases: The searches were performed using the following defined search terms: Manual reference searches of identified systematic reviews were also completed.

Selection Criteria The retrieved articles were screened for relevance, duplication, and the selection criteria. We completed title, abstract, and full-text review to identify all studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Next, working in pairs, the full research team independently reviewed and evaluated all retrieved abstracts and full texts, and reached consensus on the inclusion for the analysis. The interrater reliability between reviewers was 0.

Discrepancies were discussed within each dyad until consensus was reached; if no consensus was reached, the article underwent review by the full research team until consensus was reached. Studies excluded during the full-text review stage and their reasons for exclusion are listed in Multimedia Appendix 1.

Hope and hiv medication and adherence essay

Data Extraction Data were extracted using a set of 58 defined fields related to the design of the social media platform, social media user characteristics, use of the social media platform, benefits and disadvantages of using the social media platform, and study outcomes. Working in pairs, the research team independently extracted data from each article and then reconciled their responses to ensure consistency. Quality Assessment Two members of the research team TT, MG conducted a quality assessment of the 35 included studies using a checklist tool for assessing quality in observational studies [ 40 ].

The 6 domains used to assess risk of bias included 1 methods for selecting study participants, 2 methods for measuring exposure and outcome variables, 3 design-specific source of bias, 4 method of control confounding, 5 statistical methods, and 6 other biases including conflict of interest and disclosure of funding sources.

Nine studies used qualitative research methods [ 131416444550535461 ], 11 studies used quantitative research methods [ 1215424648495152566366 ], and 15 studies used mixed methods [ 171843475557 - 6062646567 - 69 ].

The most commonly described social media platforms to facilitate discussion around HIV were short message service SMS text messaging [ 154547 - 4952556667 ], discussion boards or forums [ 131416434456646769 ], and social networking sites eg, Facebook [ 12464853596368 ] the full list of social media platforms is provided in Table 1.

Social media platforms discussed in the studies included a variety of communication features, such as discussion facilitators, directed or guided communication, and chat features. Topics of discussion included a range of issues related to HIV prevention eg, skills and strategies to reduce risktreatment eg, medication adverse effects and adherencecoping eg, disclosure, addressing stigmaand access to resources eg, HIV services, online resources.