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Hofstedes dimensions of national culture management essay

The theory was developed by Dr. Hofstede supported the idea that culture was a tool that generated conflicts. The disparities in the cultural values lead to differences in the workplace, which may lead to stagnation. In developing the theory, Dr. Hofstede employed the factor analysis method.

From his initial research, he forwarded four dimensions which could be used to determine cultural values. These include power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism and masculinity-femininity. In the subsequent researches, Hofstede added the long-term dimension and the indulgence versus self-restraint components Geert, 2011. They can be employed in various industries and segments of the society.

All of these dimensions can be used to determine the values reflected in politics, environmentalism, business practices and health practices. The theory was based on the hofstedes dimensions of national culture management essay that every individual engages in behavioral inclinations which were promoted by their society. These values cannot be the same given the differences in cultural practices.

The dimensions further allow the comparison of different cultures. These include power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatic versus normative and indulgence versus restraint. These concepts can be used to define different business practices.

Some of the business practices that can be influenced by the Hofstede's cultural dimensions include business communication, management and team building. The power distance dimension addresses the inequality that is present in different cultures between people with and without power.

The power distance index PDI comprises the metric engaged in examining the degree of disparity between individuals in authority and the followers. Hofstede 2011 prevailed that power distance as a cultural dimension is the extent to which the less powerful members of a given society accept and expect the power to be distributed unequally.

In the article Dimensionalizing Culture: The Hofstede Model in Context, power distance is projected to be reinforced by both the leaders and the followers.

The leaders promote the distance by practicing authority while the followers propagate the notion by their acquiescence to the authorities imposed on them. Essentially, this dimension acknowledges that power inequality is present in every society but it is more prevalent in others.

These comprise the small power distance and the large power distance. In cultures that promote small power distances, the followers and leaders engage more repeatedly.

  • The social structure of organizations in India is based on superior — subordinate relationship;
  • Individualist culture values personal goals, independence and privacy;
  • These include power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism and masculinity-femininity.

Essentially, parents in such cultures treat children as their equals. Likewise, in such a culture, the subordinates expect to be consulted Geert, 2011. Small power distances demand that power should be legitimate and aligned to the metrics of good and evil. In long power distances children are expected to be subservient to the wills of their parents. Constant engagement is projected to be a misdemeanor. In this setting, the subordinates are not consulted but rather directed.

Furthermore, the income distribution in such a society is reinforced. Uncertainty avoidance can be structured into two segments.

These comprise weak uncertainty avoidance and strong uncertainty avoidance. In weak uncertainty avoidance, the subjects are more tolerant of deviant behavior. Such a culture promotes curiosity and innovation. Essentially, the uncertainties of life within this kind of structure are readily accepted. Alternatively, a strong uncertainty avoidance inspires intolerance to deviant behavior in the society.

In this dimension, members of the society view the uncertainties of life as a threat to their existence Geert, 2011. Therefore, they tend to resist reality. In such a culture, normalcy is promoted.

Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Essay

Cultures with a strong uncertainty avoidance index tend to promote values that minimize the occurrence of risks. This is achieved through the creation of regulatory frameworks that promote strict behavioral patterns within the subject institution. While in cultures that reinforce a weaker uncertainty avoidance motivation is derived from the need to create, in cultures that promote a stronger uncertainty avoidance motivation is derived from fear. The individual-collective dimension addresses the levels by which people in a society are integrated.

It explores the closeness that is present among members of the subject community. Hofstede prevailed that the individual-collective dimension is concerned with the need to determine whether the members of the community project an independent or dependent stance Hofstedes dimensions of national culture management essay G.

In societies that promote the individual framework, individuals are encouraged to speak their minds. Each individual has to have an opinion which then allows for the determination of the collective decision. In the projection of an opinion, one should ensure that they promote harmony with other individuals in the group.

Essentially, cultures which are aligned towards the collective umbrella encourage collective initiatives over individual initiatives. Essentially, the values promoted in one culture with regards to masculinity and femininity may differ from one culture to the next. Some of the values reinforced by men across different cultures comprise assertiveness while in women, modesty and a caring nature is reinforced. The femininity dimension reinforces care for the weak in the society.

The concept of competition is minimized while the promotion of women participation is reinforced. It advocates for a minimal emotional and social disparity between men and women. In the cultures that reinforce masculinity, the admiration is channeled towards the strong in the society. Likewise, men are expected to be ambitious and driven. The indulgence versus restraint dimension alludes to the degree by which a society integrates free gratification of basic and natural human desires which are linked to enjoying life and having fun Hofstede, 2011.

  • The Hofstede Model in Context;
  • Such a culture promotes leisure activities above the demanding aspects of life.

Communities that align their values to indulgence have individuals who are happier. Essentially, the values propagated in such a setting encourage open-mindedness and opinionating. Such a culture promotes leisure activities above the demanding aspects of life. Alternatively, cultures aligned towards restraint has a fewer number of individuals who are happy. Unlike in indulgence, restrained communities hardly remember positive emotions. The short-term versus long-term orientation dimension explores the extent to which a society is willing to go to acquire virtue Hofstede G.

Cultures that are aligned towards short-term orientation promote the present circumstances. In such cultures, the overall guidelines act to influence individual choices. Members of such a setting reinforce the concept of luck in weighing their successes. Alternatively, individuals who align themselves to long-term orientation are more concerned with the future. The prevailing guidelines depend on the prevailing circumstances.

The dimensions were developed between the years 1978 and 1983. Hofstede conducted interviews on more than 10,000 employees of IBM spread across the continents. The data collection processes were conducted in three phases. The hofstedes dimensions of national culture management essay phase involved 40 countries.

This phase had the largest number of respondents. The subsequent phases were intended to assess the findings of the previous dimensions. These involved airline pilots and students who were spread across 23 countries. Lastly, civil service staff managers were engaged in 14 countries and elites in 19 countries. The indulgence versus restraint framework was developed in 2010.

It was a culmination of surveys on respondents from different countries. The orientation dimension was drawn from the Monumentalism and Flexumility framework. To begin with, communication in business comprises an indispensable factor.

The power distance dimension influences the nature of communication in a business setting. It influences the direction of communication. Large power distances hamper effective communication in an organizational structure.

In such a system, information follows a vertical pattern. Essentially, the form of communication does not allow two-way movement. The subordinates are expected to be told what to do. The superiors further determine what to say. This comprises a closed system of communication and may hamper the progress of the business setting. Open communication is projected in businesses that align themselves to shorter power distances.

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The individualism-collectivism dimension also influences business communication. In individualistic business settings, communication is hampered Geert, 2011. Individuals do not readily share information as they are more inclined to withhold information to benefit themselves. The right of privacy in such a setting discourages opinionating which hampers communication.

In a collective business setting, the stress on belonging promotes interactions. This enhances the rate of communication between the members. The short-term versus long-term orientation dimension influences business communication.

Information disseminated in a business structure that aligns itself to long-term orientation is more optimistic than the information propagated in a short-term oriented business.