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Essay questions about the six day war

Example research essay topic: Free essay sample provided on this page should be used for references or sample purposes only. The sample essay is available to anyone, so any direct quoting without mentioning the source will be considered plagiarism by schools, colleges and universities that use plagiarism detection software. To get a completely brand-new, plagiarism-free essay, please use our essay writing service. Egypt and Syria initiated the conflict to regain territories that Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967.

  • Egypt and Syria initiated the conflict to regain territories that Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967;
  • Israel's threat to eradicate the Egyptian Third Army prompted U;
  • Because the two Arab leaders were focused more on their own particular national interests, rather than on other Arab-Israeli issues such as the future of the West Bank and Jerusalem and the issue of Palestinian statehood, they omitted Jordan and the PLO from the planning of the war;
  • The UN force had been instituted after the 1956 war and was in place until 1967;
  • Despite these differences, mutual frustration and impatience with the diplomatic status quo led Sadat and Assad to plan an attack in collusion;
  • Because the two Arab leaders were focused more on their own particular national interests, rather than on other Arab-Israeli issues such as the future of the West Bank and Jerusalem and the issue of Palestinian statehood, they omitted Jordan and the PLO from the planning of the war.

Although both sides suffered heavy losses during the 1973 war, Israel retained control of the territories. Although it brought about no significant changes to territorial boundaries, the 1973 war and its aftermath had far-ranging effects on the participant nations and their relations with world superpowers. Egypt moved steadily away from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSRwhich had provided military and economic aid to Egypt since the 1950 s, and into a closer relationship with the United States.

In Israel, the war increased criticism of the country's leaders, who eventually resigned.

Finally, the war signaled an increased commitment by the United States to negotiate and guarantee Arab-Israeli agreements. The long-standing conflict between Jews and Arabs over control of historic Palestine had resulted in wars in 1948, 1956, and 1967. Later that year, the United Nations UN adopted a resolution calling for Israeli withdrawal from these areas in exchange for Arab recognition of Israel's independence and security.

  • Brezhnev, viewing an Egyptian defeat as potentially destabilizing to Sadat's government, implied in communications with U;
  • Israel and Egypt both broke the terms of the cease-fire, and Israel continued its encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army;
  • By mid-October, Israel had mobilized its troops and launched a series of counterattacks on both fronts.

However, neither side met these conditions, and cross-border attacks and reprisals continued. The conflict, which did not escalate into a full-scale war, ended with a U.

In the early 1970 s Nasser's successor, Anwar al-Sadat, pushed for Israeli withdrawal through diplomatic means, while simultaneously preparing Egypt's military for war.

Each year the UN passed resolutions calling for Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories. Israel refused to withdraw, and the United States suffered criticism from the international community for its support of Israel.

Meanwhile, the stalemate continued. Arab nations generally refused to negotiate until Israel withdrew. Israel, which refused to withdraw without guarantees of peace and security, fortified its positions in the occupied Arab territories. Neither the United States nor Israel believed that Arab forces could challenge Israel's proven military power. The USSR, which had supported the Arab nations during previous wars with Israel and had resupplied Egypt militarily, knew that Egypt was preparing for war, but underestimated Sadat's commitment to use a military option against Israel.

Furthermore, neither Washington nor Moscow was fully aware of the profound differences in policy between the Egyptian and Syrian leaders. Although the ultimate essay questions about the six day war for both leaders was to regain their territories from Israel, Sadat was willing to combine military means with the initiation of a diplomatic process, whereas Syrian president Hafez al-Assad did not want to sign any agreement with Israel that might recognize Israel's legitimacy.

Despite these differences, mutual frustration and impatience with the diplomatic status quo led Sadat and Assad to plan an attack in collusion. Because the two Arab leaders were focused more on their own particular national interests, rather than on other Arab-Israeli issues such as the future of the West Bank and Jerusalem and the issue of Palestinian statehood, they omitted Jordan and the PLO from the planning of the war.

Egypt and Syria launched their attack against Israel on October 6, 1973. It was Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year. With much of its citizen army in synagogues, its national radio off the air, and its people in a generally relaxed mood, Israel was caught off guard by the coordinated attacks.

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Israeli intelligence sources had discounted the probability of an Arab assault, and Israel's military was not fully prepared for war. Sadat's armies quickly crossed the Suez Canal. In doing so, Egypt overcame the Israeli string of fortifications along the canal's east bank known as the Bar-Lev line, which Israel had believed to be impenetrable.

Egypt established strongholds to defend its position. Aware of his army's limited firepower, Sadat did not order an advance across all of the Israeli-held Sinai. Instead, his armies took a small slice of land along the entire length of the canal's east bank.

Meanwhile, Syrian forces advanced into the Golan Heights. However, both armies failed to take advantage of their early gains, Israel's lack of preparedness, and initial Israeli losses. Irregular and inaccurate communications between Cairo, Egypt, and Damascus, Syria, and between Moscow and these Arab capitals, inhibited additional Arab military successes. By mid-October, Israel had mobilized its troops and launched a series of counterattacks on both fronts.

Essay questions about the six day war

Despite severe initial casualties, Israeli forces retook the land that Syria had captured and pushed past the Syrian border, soon making their way within artillery range of Damascus. By the end of the war, Israeli forces had advanced to within 60 miles of Cairo and 25 miles of Damascus. However, Israel saw no political reason to occupy the two Arab capitals.

The precarious state in which the Arab armies found themselves hastened the war's conclusion.

Example research essay topic: Arab Israeli Conflict Six Day War - 2,012 words

It also prompted immediate intervention by the United States, which had supplied weapons to Israel during the fighting, and by the Soviet Union, which had supplied the Arab forces. Israel's threat to eradicate the Egyptian Third Army prompted U. On October 22 the UN passed the resolution, which also called for direct negotiations between the Israelis and Arabs. Israel and Egypt both broke the terms of the cease-fire, and Israel continued its encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army.

Brezhnev, viewing an Egyptian defeat as potentially destabilizing to Sadat's government, implied in communications with U.

  • Finally, the war caused internal problems in Israel;
  • Neither the United States nor Israel believed that Arab forces could challenge Israel's proven military power;
  • Neither the United States nor Israel believed that Arab forces could challenge Israel's proven military power;
  • The USSR, which had supported the Arab nations during previous wars with Israel and had resupplied Egypt militarily, knew that Egypt was preparing for war, but underestimated Sadat's commitment to use a military option against Israel;
  • With their initial gains, they shattered the myth of Israel's invincibility that had persisted since the 1967 war.

In response, Kissinger asked for and received Nixon's permission to put American troops on a nuclear alert. Both the Soviets and the Americans almost immediately stepped back from a confrontation.

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A final cease-fire took effect on October 25. Israel's desire to have its prisoners of war returned, combined with the precarious existence of the Egyptian Third Army, hastened military talks between Israel and Egypt.

Kissinger, desiring greater American participation, arranged a Middle East peace conference with the United States and the Soviet Union as chairs, to continue the negotiations. The conference convened in Geneva, Switzerland, on December 21.

After two days of public posturing, the conference was suspended and failed to reconvene. During the next two years, Kissinger used a negotiating technique called "shuttle diplomacy, " flying back and forth between the Arab capitals and Israel and acting as a mediator.

This technique yielded the first Egyptian-Israeli military disengagement agreement, calling for Israel's withdrawal back across the Suez Canal and the restoration in January 1974 of a UN peacekeeping force in the canal zone.

The UN force had been instituted after the 1956 war and was in place until 1967. In May 1974 Syria and Israel, with Kissinger's help, concluded a disengagement agreement by which Israel returned Syrian territory captured in the 1973 war, along with the town of Al Qunaytirah in the Golan region. A second Egyptian-Israeli agreement was concluded in September 1975. Although the war yielded no immediate territorial concessions, it had many far-reaching effects on the wider Arab-Israeli conflict.

While Arab casualties were far greater than Israeli casualties, both sides claimed victory. The Arab forces had proven that they could launch a successful coordinated attack. With their initial gains, they shattered the myth of Israel's invincibility that had persisted since the 1967 war. Meanwhile, despite significant early losses, Israel had successfully regrouped in a matter of days, pushing the Arab forces back beyond the 1967 borders. While the war did not affect Syria's close alignment with the Soviet Union and strong opposition to the United States and Israel, it initiated drastic changes in Egypt's foreign relations.

Kissinger's newly developing relationship with Sadat reduced Soviet influence over Egypt and brought the country closer to the United States. Each successful agreement also generated trust between Israel and Egypt. Both of these developments established the foundation for the U. However, Egypt's improved relations with the United States and Israel also led to its separation and isolation from inter-Arab affairs in the 1980 s. Meanwhile, the diplomatic successes essay questions about the six day war the United States in the aftermath of the war made it the preferred mediator, confidant, and diplomatic guarantor of Arabs and Israelis alike in future negotiations.

The 1973 war also marked the first successful use of oil as a political weapon in the Arab-Israeli conflict.

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From October 1973 to November 1974, the oil-producing Arab countries maintained an embargo on oil exports to Western nations friendly to Israel, causing gasoline shortages and inflated oil prices. The embargo had a particularly negative effect on the U. Finally, the war caused internal problems in Israel. The Israeli military's lack of readiness called into question the capabilities of the country's leaders.

The results of an ensuing investigation were highly critical of the military, prompting the resignations of Israeli prime minister Golda Meir and defense minister Moshe Dayan. Air Power in the Nuclear Age. University of Illinois Press. Jewish Bulletin of Northern California [Online]. The Making of a People. A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881 - 1999. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.