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Essay - need for conservation of forests

Forest Conservation Movements in India: The Chipko movement or Chipko Andolan was primarily a forest conservation movement in India that began in 1973 and went on to become a rallying point for many future environmental contrast and movements all over the world; it created a precedent for non-violent protest started in India.

The movement occurred at a time when there was hardly any environmental movement in the developing world, and its success meant that the world immediately took notice of this non-violent movement, which was to inspire in time many such eco-groups by helping to slow down the rapid deforestation, expose vested interests, increase ecological awareness, and demonstrate the viability of people power.

It was a revolutionary movement based on environmental conservation in India. The Chipko movement Hug the Trees Movement in Uttarakhand in the Himalayas inspired the villagers of the Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka State in southern India to launch a similar movement to save their forests. Appiko movement gave birth to a new awareness all over southern India.

Methods of Forest Conservation: Regulated and Planned Cutting of Trees: One of the main reasons of deforestation is commercial felling of trees. Although trees are considered as perennial resource, when exploited on a very large scale, their revival cannot be possible.

Adopting methods to regulate cutting: The clear cutting method is useful for those areas where the same types of trees are available over a large area.

In such case, trees of same age group are cut down in a selected area and then marked for replantation. But in selective cutting only mature trees are selected for cutting. This process is to be followed in rotation. Shelter woodcutting is where first of all useless trees are cut down followed by medium and best quality timber trees.

In regulated cutting only one-tenth of the forest area is selected for use and rotational system is always followed for their protection.

Control over Forest Essay - need for conservation of forests Destruction or loss of forest by fire is fairly common; because trees are highly exposed to fire and once started it becomes difficult to control. Sometimes, the fire starts by natural process, i. In order to save forests from fire, it is necessary to adopt latest techniques of firefighting and trained staff.

Some of the fire suppression techniques are to develop three metre wide fire lanes around the periphery of the fire, back fires, arrangement of water spray, fire retardant chemicals should be sprayed from back tank and if possible by helicopters. The sustained yield concept dictates that whenever timber is removed, either by block cutting or by selective cutting, the denuded area must be reforested.

Similarly, any forested land, which has been destroyed by fire or mining activities, should be reforested. In rugged essay - need for conservation of forests aerial seeding is the method of choice.

Besides all this, fresh afforestation programmes should be started.

Short Paragraph on Conservation of Forest (358 Words)

This would increase the forest cover as well help in making up the eco-balance. Selection of trees should be done according to local geographical conditions iv. For the development of villages, towns and cities, forestlands have been cleared and this process continues to this day causing loss of forest cover.

This should be checked and green belts around cities be developed. Most of the present-day agricultural land was once forested and then cleared for the use of agriculture; it has reached a stage where further clearance will be dangerous for the entire ecosystem. According to an estimate, about 40 million sq. Apart from commercial cutting, unorganized grazing is also one of the reasons. There are several forest diseases resulting from parasitic fungi, rusts, mistletoes, viruses and nematodes, which cause the destruction of trees.

The forests should be protected either by use of chemical spray, antibiotics or by development of disease resistant strains of trees. Proper Utilization of Forest and Forests Products: Generally, trees are cut for logs and the rest, including stump, limbs, branches and foliage, etc.

Further waste occurs at the sawmills. Therefore there is a need to utilize this waste material. Similarly, forests can be used or developed as tourist centres. This is a good method of forest conservation. Role of Government and Forest Management: Implementation of the policies in an effective manner is the need of the hour.

The NFAP identified five interrelated basic issues confronting forestry development in India which form the basis of the following programme structures.

Protect Existing Forests Resources: It has three main sub-programmes: These include the works of forest survey, demarcation and mapping, inventory, biodiversity conservation, protected area management, protection against poaching, encroachment and fire, and other related issues.

It has four main sub-programmes: These mainly involve research, improvement in technology, enrichment planting, soil and water conservation, regeneration, rehabilitation, and afforestation, mainly in existing forests. It has three main sub-programmes for the efficient use of: This includes programme for reduction of demand placed on forests through the technology of preservation, seasoning, substitutions, and other measures for the efficient utilization of forest products and also through biomass plantations.

Essay on the Conservation of Forest in India

Strengthen Policy and Institutional Framework: These include the development of infrastructure such as buildings, communications, etc. This issue also covers all aspects of capacity- building, forest policy and legislation, public forest administration and organizational structure, research, planning and budgeting.

It has two main sub-programmes: This issue includes the extension of forestry programme in all kind of wastelands and marginal farmlands.

  1. Throughout the Nilgiris, it is now almost impossible to spot a large tusker.
  2. The forests of India are unique, in the sense that the types of forests found in the various regions of the country, vary widely, thus forming a conglomeration of forest types within the nation.
  3. More and more trees should be planted, protected and seen growing and maturing. Lack of adequate vegetal cover in the catchments or watersheds of our rivers and streams, exploitation of our hill forests indiscriminately to meet the ever-increasing needs of population, the indiscriminate lopping, grazing and fires have resulted in a great loss to the country in the form of soil erosion, floods, and damage to the regeneration.

It also includes the programme of certain of plantation forests through wasteland reclamation, afforestation, and promotion of agroforestry. Forestry is a concurrent subject in the Indian Constitution, being under the purview of both the central and state governments.

The first forest policy of India was enunciated in 1894 which focused on commercial exploitation of timber and gave importance to permanent cultivation. This was revised in 1952 and a new forest policy recognized the protective role of forests and proposed that one-third of the land area of the country be retained under forest and tree cover.

Free sample essay on Forest and Wildlife Conservation

It was only in 1988 that a shift in policy occurred when the Government of India adopted the National Forest Policy NFP1988, recognizing the rights of the people over forests.

It is a comprehensive work plan for sustainable development of forests in India. Biological Diversity Act, 2002 for Forest Conservation: The Biological Diversity Act, 2002, aims to protect the biological resources of the country, and thus, addresses forest ecology in its totality. The 73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution, 1992, makes it mandatory for all states to decentralize governance through a three-tier structure, viz.

Among the 29 functions recommended for decentralization, three relate to forestry, i.

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Its functions include aid to and promoting forestry research and its application, acting as a clearing house for research results and information, dissemination of technology, etc. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi b. Indian Institute of-Forest Management, Bhopal b. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun e. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata g. Zoological Survey of India, Dehradun h. Forest Survey of India, Dehradun i.

Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi m. Centre for Ecological Research and Training, Bangalore.