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Elizabeth i skilful in her response to threats history essay

Religion and rebellion 1568-1585 The Scottish rebellion of 1560 deprived Mary, Queen of Scots of effective power, but she never accepted this and plotted to regain full authority. Mary also claimed the English crown. Darnley was an alcoholic, capricious playboy, but he was the son of Margaret Douglas and therefore the grandson of Henry VII's eldest daughter, Margaret Tudor. Darnley was a liability and Mary excluded him from influence, making her Italian Catholic secretary, David Riccio into her main counselor.

Darnley conspired with the Protestant Lords to murder Riccio in 1566. In 1567, Darnley himself was murdered possibly with Mary's approval ; and Mary then married the adventurer, James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, who had probably organized Darnley's homicide.

How serious a threat did the Puritans pose to Elizabeth I and her Church?

The outraged Scottish nobility rose again, defeated Mary and Bothwell in battle and forced her to abdicate in favor of her infant son, James VI. In 1569, the earls of Westmorland and Northumberland led the Revolt of the Northern Earls, aimed at restoring Catholicism and placing Mary on the throne in place of Elizabeth. The rebellion was soon defeated. Pope Pius V heard of the revolt and having despaired of Elizabeth restoring Catholicism decided to help the rebels by deposing Elizabeth.

How successfully did Elizabeth I handle her finances?

In fact the bull of deposition, Regnans in Excelsis did not arrive until after the Revolt's suppression and served only to anger Elizabeth and increase her distrust of Catholics. The view that all Roman Catholics were potential traitors led to a series of measures against them from 1570 onwards: Roman Catholic judges and Justices of the Peace were excluded from power, and it became increasingly dangerous to shelter priests.

The deterioration of relations with the Papacy went along with increasing tension with the "most Catholic" king of Spain, Philip II. Philip II was faced with the rebellion in the Netherlands: Calvinist beliefs had spread in its northern provinces, and even the Catholic South feared that Philip would suppress local autonomy. In 1567, Philip sent an army there to prevent an uprising, but Elizabeth was afraid that the army would be used against England. In 1568, she seized a shipment of bullion sent by Genoese bankers to pay the Spanish troops garrisoned in the Netherlands.

Philip was furious, particularly as he was also suffering losses in the New World from English privateers. In 1572, full-scale revolt broke out in the Netherlands, and Elizabeth sent them help in the form of elizabeth i skilful in her response to threats history essay and supplies. No English soldiers were sent until 1585. These priests began arriving in England from about 1574 onwards. Anti-Catholic feeling contributed to the growth of radical Puritanism.

Many Protestants objected to the traditional ceremonies retained in the Church of England's worship. When Elizabeth and her bishops insisted that these rituals be observed, some puritans took their opposition further and adopted Presbyterian views.

Presbyterianism posed a serious threat to Elizabeth's control of the church.

  1. Anti-Catholic feeling contributed to the growth of radical Puritanism. Essex was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1599 and placed in charge of a large English army to suppress Irish rebels.
  2. In 1572, full-scale revolt broke out in the Netherlands, and Elizabeth sent them help in the form of money and supplies.
  3. Citing scripture, the emphasis was on communion as an act of remembrance.
  4. Cranmer had set out to Protestantize the Church that his king had separated from Rome.

Sir Francis Walsingham Invasion and recession 1585-1603 From the moment of her arrival in England, Mary Queen of Scots schemed not only for her restoration to the throne of Scotland, but to seize the English crown. In 1586, Sir Francis Walsingham finally obtained compelling evidence that Mary had encouraged the assassination of Elizabeth, and Elizabeth reluctantly agreed to Mary's execution.

Mary was the obvious Catholic candidate to rival Elizabeth, but after her death Philip II of Spain was able to launch a barely plausible case for the claim of his daughter, Isabella. In 1588, Philip sent an Armada to the English Channel. This fleet of ships was to mount an invasion of England with the Spanish troops stationed in the Netherlands.

Elizabeth I of England

The English navy with some help from the weather were able to defeat the Spanish Armada and prevent invasion. The English defeated further attempts at invasion in 1596 and 1597. Philip II also assisted the Irish in their intermittent rebellions against the English, while Elizabeth helped the Netherlands resist Spain.

By 1603, the Northern largely Protestant provinces of the Netherlands had obtained de facto independence from Spain. Before 1588, it was necessary to maintain Protestant unity in the face of the Catholic menace, but when this threat diminished Elizabeth was able to turn against the seditious elements within the English Church.

Archbishop John Whitgift 1530?

By the 1590s, the Presbyterian movement was in complete disarray. The use of Ireland as a base by Spain forced England to take more active measures.

Between 1593 and 1603 there was full-scale war in Ireland as England brought the whole country under its control. The campaign was successful but very expensive, and also provoked a nationalist and Roman Catholic reaction. The high taxes required for the Irish campaign combined with an economic crisis between 1594 and 1597. Bad weather and poor harvests led to the highest food prices of the sixteenth century and even to famine. Throughout her reign, Elizabeth had balanced at court and in council the various political factions.

But her final years saw increasingly bitter conflict between the Cecils William and his son Robert and Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. Essex was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1599 and placed in charge of a large English army to suppress Irish rebels.

Instead, Essex signed an unauthorized truce with the Earl of Tyrone - the greatest rebel.

Elizabeth i skilful in her response to threats history essay

Elizabeth deprived Essex of his titles and ordered his arrest. He responded by attempting a coup against Elizabeth in January 1601. The coup was a complete failure, and he was executed for treason in February.