# Effect of force and mass on acceleration essay

## An investigation into the acceleration of a trolley up a ramp

This provides a useful framework upon which to consider and develop your own ideas. Gravitational force keeps things on the ground and stops them floating away At the simplest level this statement describes the most obvious phenomenon associated with gravitational force.

- Of the engineering dynamics books studied Meriam and Craige, 2003, Hibbeler, 2004, Bedford and Fowler, 2005 only Meriam and Craige 2003 mention the centrifugal force, and none introduces the equivalence principle. You do the math!
- The equivalence principle and g-forces The concept of "g-forces", commonly used in connection with amusement rides, is closely related to the equivalence principle.
- We have found that the character of the questions is essentially independent of the age of the learner and many questions involve height, speed and g-forces.
- Hibbeler, R C 2004 Engineering Mechanics. Many are the teachers who have been struck by the large number of students who state that the acceleration is zero in the highest point for a ball thrown up in the air.
- When they collide, the object with the higher velocity, and thus greater momentum, will transfer more energy to the slower object than vice versa.

To help clarify this, adopt a simple, particulate model of matter that visualises all objects being made up of different numbers of unit masses i. It is logical that gravitational force will pull on each unit mass with the same degree of force.

It follows that an object made of two unit masses will be pulled twice as hard as an object made of only one unit mass.

- However accepting that this last statement is true, then the gravitational force between two objects is the sum of both. I learned that when going in the Pony Carousel, the cuddly toy kept going in the same direction, while I was going around The larger freedom in a playground environment also allows for experiments unsuitable in an amusement park, such as attempting to throw a ball to the friend on the other side of the carousel Figure 3.
- Yes Here, the students' struggle with what happens momentarily in the turning point is more evident. Discussion of group interviews An important dichotomy is whether the description of acceleration refers to another object or involves the own body.
- In the park, they can also observe the variation of the length of a slinky held by a friend in the Frog Hopper, making possible a joint discussion on the ground for the rest of the group.
- No In this group, the student N immediately gives a relatively complete answer.
- Thoughts on safety and "what would happen if... Bedford and Fowler 2005 spend three pages discussing the effects in different parts of the world and the consequences for weather systems.

The same model helps overcome the difficulty of understanding why, if this is the case, do objects of different mass accelerate towards the Earth at the same rate assuming that air resistance effects are ignored. Gravitational force pulls on each unit mass with a constant force resulting in a constant acceleration an increase in speed of about 10 metres per second every second.

Whether it is pulling one unit mass or a thousand unit masses, this constancy of acceleration remains the same. This will be discussed in the section on friction and air resistance.

An objects mass is determined by the number of unit masses that make it up. Its weight is determined by the degree to which gravitational force acts on it.

## Newton's First Law

On Earth an object whose mass is 100 grams is pulled towards the centre of the planet with a force of 1 Newton. Gravitational force on the Moon is less than on Earth The Moon is a smaller object than the Earth and of lower mass. As a consequence, its gravitational field only pulls with a force of about a fifth of that of the Earth.

An object of mass 100 grams which weighs 1 Newton on Earth would only weigh 0. The size of the gravitational force is determined by the mass of the object and the mass of the Earth or Moon There is gravitational force between any two objects Children and adults will come to accept that the invisible gravitational forces that they experience are associated with the unimaginably large masses of planets and other heavenly bodies.

The idea that small massed objects such as themselves also exert gravitational force is often a step too far in terms of credulity! However accepting that this last statement is true, then the gravitational force between two objects is the sum of both.

The size of this gravitational force is not only dependent on their masses but also the distance between these objects Although this statement comes high in the order of progression associated with an understanding of gravitational forces, for many children and adults it is more obvious than some of the other ideas that have to be coped with. It would seem likely that the impact or effects of a force would be less, the further away it was acting as can be simply demonstrated using magnetic forces for example.