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Edgar allan poe bioits really good essay

  • Page 2 edgar allan poe essay to the prince because it was very greedy of him to ignore his people while he had a good time in the safety edgar allan poe biography;
  • By far the majority of criticism on the short story focused on techniques of writing.

While the short story was not the first fictional genre to make its appearance during the course of the 19th century, it certainly was the first to adapt itself to a new cultural environment, as writers set about using it as a means… Analysis of the genre As a genrethe short story received relatively little critical attention through the middle of the 20th century, and the most valuable studies of the form were often limited by region or era.

By far the majority of criticism on the short story focused on techniques of writing. Many, and often the best of the technical works, advise the young reader—alerting the reader to the variety of devices and tactics employed by the skilled writer.

These two terms establish the polarities of the milieu out of which the modern short story grew. The tale is much older than the sketch.

Usually filled with cryptic and uniquely deployed motifs, personages, and symbolstales are frequently fully understood only by members of the particular culture to which they belong.

Simply, tales are intracultural. Seldom created to address an outside culture, a tale is a medium through which a culture speaks to itself and thus perpetuates its own values and stabilizes its own identity. The old speak to the young through tales. The sketch, by contrast, is intercultural, depicting some phenomenon of one culture for the benefit or pleasure of a second culture.

Factual and journalistic, in essence the sketch is generally more analytic or descriptive and less narrative or dramatic than the tale. Moreover, the sketch by nature is suggestive, incomplete; the tale is often hyperbolic, overstated. The primary mode of the sketch is written; that of the tale, spoken.

This difference alone accounts for their strikingly different effects. The sketch writer can have, or pretend to have, his eye on his subject. The tale, recounted at court or campfire—or at some place similarly removed in time from the event—is nearly always a re-creation of the past. The sketch writer is more an agent of space, bringing an aspect of one culture to the attention of a second.

It is only a slight oversimplification to suggest that the tale was edgar allan poe bioits really good essay only kind of short fiction until the 16th century, when a rising middle class interest in social realism on the one hand and edgar allan poe bioits really good essay exotic lands on the other put a premium on sketches of subcultures and foreign regions. Nikolay GogolHawthorne, E. Each writer worked in his own way, but the general effect was to mitigate some of the fantasy and stultifying conventionality of the tale and, at the same time, to liberate the sketch from its bondage to strict factuality.

The modern short story, then, ranges between the highly imaginative tale and the photographic sketch and in some ways draws on both. The short stories of Ernest Hemingwayfor example, may often gain their force from an exploitation of traditional mythic symbols water, fish, groin woundsbut they are more closely related to the sketch than to the tale.

Indeed, Hemingway was able at times to submit his apparently factual stories as newspaper copy. Faulkner seldom seems to understate, and his stories carry a heavy flavour of the past. Both his language and his subject matter are rich in traditional material.

A Southerner might well suspect that only a reader steeped in sympathetic knowledge of the traditional South could fully understand Faulkner. Faulkner may seem, at times, to be a Southerner speaking to and for Southerners. Whether or not one sees the modern short story as a fusion of sketch and tale, it is hardly disputable that today the short story is a distinct and autonomousthough still developing, genre.

History Origins The evolution of the short story first began before humans could write. To aid in constructing and memorizing tales, the early storyteller often relied on stock phrases, fixed rhythms, and rhyme.

Consequently, many of the oldest narratives in the world, such as the ancient Babylonian tale the Epic of Gilgameshare in verse. Indeed, most major stories from the ancient Middle East were in verse: Those tales were inscribed in cuneiform on clay during the 2nd millennium bce.

From Egypt to India The earliest tales extant from Egypt were composed on papyrus at a comparable date. The ancient Egyptians seem to have written their narratives largely in prose, apparently reserving verse for their religious hymns and working songs. Of all the early Egyptian tales, most of which are baldly didacticthis story is perhaps the richest in folk motifs and the most intricate in plot.

The earliest tales from India are not as old as those from Egypt and the Middle East. Perhaps more interesting as stories are the later tales in the Pali languagethe Jatakas. Although these tales have a religious frame that attempts to recast them as Buddhist ethical teachings, their actual concern is generally with secular behaviour and practical wisdom.

Another, nearly contemporaneous collection of Indian tales, the Panchatantra c. Most of those tales come from much older material, and they vary from the fantastic story of a transformed swan to a more probable tale of a loyal but misunderstood servant.

During the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th centuries bce, the sophisticated narratives that are now a part of the Hebrew Bible and the Apocrypha were first written down.

Short story

The book of Tobit displays an unprecedented sense of ironic humour; Judith creates an unrelenting and suspenseful tension as it builds to its bloody climax; the story of Susannathe most compact and least fantastic in the Apocrypha, develops a three-sided conflict involving the innocent beauty of Susanna, the lechery of the elders, and the triumphant wisdom of Daniel. The books of RuthEstherand Jonah hardly need mentioning to those familiar with biblical literature: Nearly all of the ancient tales, whether from Israel, India, Egypt, or the Middle Eastwere fundamentally didactic.

Some of those ancient stories preached by presenting an ideal for readers edgar allan poe bioits really good essay imitate. The Greeks The early Greeks contributed greatly to the scope and art of short fiction. Apollodorus of Athens compiled a handbook of epitomesor abstracts, of those tales around the 2nd century bce, but the tales themselves are no longer extant in their original form.

They appear, though somewhat transformed, in the longer poetical works of HesiodHomerand the tragedians. The Cyropaedia also contains other narrative interpolations: Moreover, the Greeks are usually credited with originating the romancea long form of prose fiction with stylized plots of love, catastropheand reunion.

The early Greek romances frequently took shape as a series of short tales. The Love Romances of Parthenius of Nicaeawho wrote during the reign of Augustus Caesaris a collection of 36 prose stories of unhappy lovers. The Milesian Tales no longer extant was an extremely popular collection of erotic and ribald stories composed by Aristides of Miletus in the 2nd century bce and translated almost immediately into Latin.

As the variety of these short narratives suggests, the Greeks were less insistent than earlier cultures that short fiction be predominantly didactic. By comparison the contribution of the Romans to short narrative was small.

The other major fictional narratives to come out of Rome are novel-length works by Gaius Petronius Arbiter Satyricon1st century ce and Lucius Apuleius The Golden Ass2nd century ce. Like Ovid those men used potential short story material as episodes within a larger whole.

The Roman love of rhetoricit seems, encouraged the development of longer and more comprehensive forms of expression. Regardless, the trend away from didacticism inaugurated by the Greeks was not reversed. Middle Ages, Renaissance, and after Proliferation of forms The Middle Ages in Europe was a time of the proliferation, though not necessarily the refinement, of short narratives.

The short tale edgar allan poe bioits really good essay an important means of diversion and amusement. From the medieval era to the Renaissance, various cultures adopted short fiction for their own purposes. Even the aggressive, grim spirit of the invading Germanic barbarians was amenable to expression in short prose.

The myths and sagas extant in Scandinavia and Iceland indicate the kinds of bleak and violent tales the invaders took with them into southern Europe. In contrast, the romantic imagination and high spirits of the Celts remained manifest in their tales.

Wherever they appeared—in Ireland, Wales, or Brittany—stories steeped in magic and splendour also appeared. This spirit, easily recognized in such Irish mythological tales as Longes mac n-Uislenn probably 9th-centuryinfused the chivalric romances that developed somewhat later on the Continent.

Many, but not all, of the romances are too long to be considered short stories. The latter was gifted as a creator of the short narrative poems known as the Breton lays. Only occasionally did a popular short romance like Aucassin and Nicolette 13th century fail to address any of the three Matters.

Also widely respected was the exempluma short didactic tale usually intended to dramatize or otherwise inspire model behaviour.

Of all the exempla, the best known in the 11th and 12th centuries were the lives of the saints, some 200 of which are extant. Among the common people of the late Middle Ages there appeared a literary movement counter to that of the romance and exemplum.

Edgar allan poe bioits really good essay

All were important as short narratives, but perhaps the most intriguing of the three are the fabliaux. First appearing around the middle of the 12th century, fabliaux remained popular for 200 years, attracting the attention of Boccaccio and Chaucer. Some 160 fabliaux are extant, all in verse. Often, the medieval storyteller—regardless of the kind of tale he preferred—relied on a framing circumstance that made possible the juxtaposition of several stories, each of them relatively autonomous.

Since there was little emphasis on organic unity, most storytellers preferred a flexible format, one that allowed tales to be added or removed at random with little change in effect. Such a format is found in The Seven Sages of Rome, a collection of stories so popular that nearly every European country had its own translation.

The framing circumstance in The Seven Sages involves a prince condemned to death; his advocates the seven sages relate a new story each day, thereby delaying the execution until his innocence is made known. This technique is clearly similar to that of The Thousand and One Nightscomponents of which can be dated to as early as the 8th century but which was not translated as a single collection in Europe until the 18th century. In both the Persian and Arabian versions of the frame, the clever Scheherazade avoids death by telling her king-husband a thousand stories.

The versatility Chaucer displays in The Canterbury Tales 1387—1400 reflects the versatility of the age. This short list hardly exhausts the catalogue of forms Chaucer experimented edgar allan poe bioits really good essay.

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By edgar allan poe bioits really good essay tale to teller and by exploiting relationships among the various tellers, Chaucer endowed The Canterbury Tales with a unique, dramatic vitality. Where Chaucer reveals a character through actions and assertions, Boccaccio seems more interested in stories as pieces of action.

With Boccaccio, the characters telling the stories, and usually the characters within, are of subordinate interest. Like Chaucer, Boccaccio frames his well-wrought tales in a metaphoric context. The trip to the shrine at Canterbury provides a meaningful backdrop against which Chaucer juxtaposes his earthy and pious characters.

Behind every story, in effect, is the inescapable presence of the Black Death. The Decameron, likely written between 1349 and 1353, is fashioned out of a variety of sources, including fabliaux, exempla, and short romances. Spreading popularity Immediately popular, the Decameron produced imitations nearly everywhere in western Europe. In Italy alone, there appeared at least 50 writers of novelle as short narratives were called after Boccaccio.

Learning from the success and artistry of Boccaccio and, to a lesser degree, his contemporary Franco SacchettiItalian writers for three centuries kept the Western world supplied with short narratives. Sacchetti was no mere imitator of Boccaccio.

Two other well-known narrative writers of the 14th century, Giovanni Fiorentino and Giovanni Sercambi, freely acknowledged their imitation of Boccaccio. With Masuccio the popularity of short stories was just beginning to spread.

Almost every Italian in the 16th century, it has been suggested, tried his hand at novelle.