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Deixis, cognition and the construction of viewpoint essay

London and New York: This volume in the Critical Idiom series, The Author by Andrew Bennett, is an introduction to the concept of authorship and the role that critical and theoretical conceptions of the author have played in literary studies.

Through his discussion of authorship in literary studies, Bennett makes a strong and stimulating case that this critical notion has played a central role in contemporary literary theory, defining what and how we understand literature.

It is not merely that the speaker is absent in writing, but the very act of writing destructs the speaking voice as a stable point of origin and as a source of authority p.

Beginning with classical and medieval notions of authority, ownership and originality Chapter 2 and then looking at Romantic ideals of authorial genius Chapter 3Bennett provides a concise — if somewhat anglocentric — overview of the development of the concept deixis the author from the medieval auctor, whose authority comes from God, to the modern notion of an author as an individual personality responsible for the meaning of the work.

The paradox is that while Romantic poetics focus on authorship, they also evacuate authorship of subjectivity.

The author in new historicism is, then, a central, organizing presence, even as it is conceived of as a textual effect and as submerged within or embraced by the circulation of social and political energies and the discourses and structures of power. Although the point that Bennett makes early in the chapter that collaborative authorship may in fact be the normal mode of production rather than a marginal literary mode, the limited examples that he provides — a quick run-through of examples from the English canon, two scholarly works on Milton and Shakespeare, and the medium of film — do little to push this argument beyond the obvious statement that most artistic works cannot in the end be attributed to a single creator, making this the weakest chapter of an otherwise solid introductory work.

In each of these examples, Bennett identifies the role of the author in the literary criticism espoused. According to Bennett, what he describes as the current crisis in literary scholarship is wrapped up in the apparitional quality of the literary author. Just as the literary work relies on referential indeterminacy, the literary author both is and is not the real person represented by the name on the cover.

The uncanniness of the author, Bennett argues, also lends him a particular position between the universal and the individual, a position of exemplarity, which is characteristic of literature in general: There is no doubt, we might say, that the problem of exemplarity is fundamental to the question of authorship in and as the question of literature.

And it might explain, finally, why the enduring power of literary texts, a power deixis recent criticism and theory have so often resisted or denied, is to encourage our identifications not only with characters but with these strangers, these others, these authors.

Authorship from Plato to Postmodernism: Perspectives in Post-Structuralist Criticism, pp.

  1. Deixis in narrative discourse the essays gathered here pay tribute to banfield by addressing those disciplines and topics most closely related to her work. Through examples of analysis, he demonstrates how this works while at the same time identifying the inadequacies of the approach for the key deictic shift when a member of an audience looks up through the invisible wall of fictionality towards the staging.
  2. Just as the literary work relies on referential indeterminacy, the literary author both is and is not the real person represented by the name on the cover. Language and the creative mind.
  3. Applied linguistics - ebook download in terms of creative construction the structural syllabus and offering their own viewpoint articulately and. Applied linguistics - ebook download in terms of creative construction the structural syllabus and offering their own viewpoint articulately and.

ISBN 9 7 hbk. Stylisticians have traditionally found drama the difficult third space. Early adventures in the rigorous linguistic analysis of poetry were quickly extended into prose as our pragmatic and sociolinguistic toolkit expanded, but the stylistic analysis of drama remains fraught with difficulties. The vast majority of work in stylistics over the last half-century rests on prose and poetry and only rarely touches on theatre, and then it is mostly low- level stuff.

Even the major stylisticians of the age lose their footing when they step off the page and onto the stage. The first problem concerns the stability of the object: Most stylistic treatments of drama start by fixing the text — most commonly by settling on the published script — and thus ignore the crucial and essential aspect of drama, which is its performativity.

The weakest examples sometimes treat scripted lines as if they were sociolinguistic transcriptions, as if turn-taking and interruptions were naturalistic and intentionally motivated even coming out of the mouths of actors. The more sophisticated examples claim that the stable playtext represents a sort of idealization of several performances, with the cognition and the construction of viewpoint essay in the role of an ideal reader.

Like poetry and prose but more so, drama is as much a felt experience deixis a textually mediated Language and Literature 17 1 BOOK REVIEWS set of propositions, and cognitive approaches to literature have been promising a rigorous aesthetics for some time now. In recent years, the tools have emerged to allow the stylistician to create a proper account of the texture of the theatrical experience, and McIntyre sets about this task with pioneering relish.

McIntyre wisely avoids prototypically peripheral cases such as podcasts, video installations, street theatre, dance, and so on. His business here is focused and systematic, and he is sensitive to the critical theory of drama as well as older stylistic attempts on the mode. He begins by revisiting the familiar approaches to point of view within the narratology of prose fiction, with a view to filleting this material for its useful application to drama.

This chapter in itself is worth the price of admission, providing a succinct summary and simultaneous critique of viewpoint theories of the last century. He moves on quickly to setting out some working solutions for the drama stylistician.

One of the most fruitful approaches involves a return to a core concept in linguistic theory: Drawing particularly on the deictic shift theory developed by Duchan et al. Through examples of analysis, he demonstrates how this works while at the same time identifying the inadequacies of the approach for the key deictic shift when a member of an audience looks up through the invisible wall of fictionality towards the staging.

As a remedy to this gap, he takes the discussion into possible worlds theory as a means of analysing dramatic points of view. This is becoming a Lancaster motif, a similar final chapter strategy being presented in work by Jonathan Culpeper, Elena Semino and Mick Short respectively.

McIntyre began his research for this book while at Lancaster University, before taking up his current post in Huddersfield. It is an intelligent and useful way of presenting working evidence, ending with both a demonstrably argued trajectory and a rhetorically convincing flourish.

The range of plays included for analysis and the level of stylistic detail are the key drivers that make the book a success. This selection creates a paradoxical problem of both over- and under-specificity.

Table of contents

Language and Literature 17 1 BOOK REVIEWS In spite of a smattering of Shakespeare, the focus is on 20th-century plays, but the historical development of drama, and the question of locating a play historically are not addressed in the selection of playtexts.

The book has the evidence for claims about modern plays, but whether these claims are generalizable into the past is unproven. On the other hand, it is also clear from the list above that there is quite a lot of intra-generic variation even amongst the plays selected: Given the case that some cognitive poetics is insufficiently stylistic, I think on balance that the gaps in comprehensive cover are more than compensated for by the attention paid to analytical detail.

It is in this textual attention that the book will generate further work in drama in general, and will have a life after its final act. This book is significant for offering principled solutions for narratology, for cognitive poetics, for literary scholars and, of course, for advancing towards a rigorous poetics of drama.

It will be regarded by future stylisticians of theatre as a turning point in the field. The Rhetoric of Narrative in Fiction and Film. A Cognitive Science Perspective. University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. ISBN 0 9 pbk. The collection of 13 essays is divided into four sections. Drawing from more textual evidence in her essay, Patricia Bizzell examines speeches by William Apess. Boudinot deixis passionately against the removal of the Cherokee from their land as part of the Indian Removal Act This analysis of Boudinot is particularly interesting in that it illustrates that American ideals based on the Enlightenment, which fed into the language cognition and the construction of viewpoint essay the US Constitution, were shifting towards ideals of expansionism.

Their Wrongs and Claims and by Indians who felt she had become white and had abandoned her native birthright. Stromberg, however, points out with considerable evidence, that these were often subtle and ironic criticisms of this system varying in their degree of indignation.

Deixis, cognition and the construction of viewpoint essay

Janna Knittel investigates selected writings of Leonard Peltier, who has been in prison since for the murder of two FBI agents at a confrontation between Indian activists and government officials at Wounded Knee. It is also the first in this collection to engage a contrastive approach, bringing in American Indian rhetoric that follows native traditions, incorporating techniques used in storytelling, such as addressing the reader in the second person and self-correction instead of editing texts.

Contrastive rhetoric is undertaken more fully in the remaining sections of this collection. Distinguishing native from non-native discourses, Helen.

Her approach rightly highlights the self-awareness of the multivocality of native autobiographies and criticism. This includes thorough coverage of the debate between assimilation and de-assimilation often revealed in these writings. In a similar vein, Karen A.

At this point the reader of this collection is likely to sense a shift in resistance and survivance rhetoric away from being addressed at white European audiences to an internal rhetoric targeting American Indian artists, scholars and students. This correctly reflects a key development in American Indian studies in recent decades.

DeRosa provides an overview of cognition and the construction of viewpoint essay debate in recent years over how to approach non-western texts given the western origins of critical theory and its terminology. This discussion would have been fuller had DeRosa chosen to include Pulitano and Warrior The storytelling itself can be regarded as native critical theory, an approach to native theory also advocated by Gerald Vizenor and other leading scholars. Although the discussion on the nature of sovereignty, placed here in an international context, is noteworthy, given the perspectives of this collection, more attention is demanded by the reader of the Indian response.

This story appropriately, and humorously, unites theory and practice in the modern traditions of American Indian rhetoric. University of Nebraska Press.

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Narratives on Postindian Survivance. Recovering American Indian Intellectual Traditions. University of Minnesota Press.