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Children with mental retardation and self esteem psychology essay

The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. The sampling included 227 healthy children: The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15st and June 26st 2010.

It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling 47. Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap 47.

Although the average score of trait anxiety and self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.

Among the disabled group, 18. Appreciation and adoption of self-concept bring about self-esteem. The symptoms of anxiety in children are unhappiness, feeling empty, easy and frequent crying, not doing their likes, anhedonia, feeling worthless and guilty, hopelessness, being nervous and distressed, short temper, appetite disorders, sleep disorders, sensitiveness, distractibility, poor school performance, breakdown in family relations, increasing friendship problems and feeling rejected and alone.

The child with low self-esteem will have difficulty in not only the academic field but also all areas of social skills. In addition, similarly, the child with a high level of anxiety will face failures in the social life.

Having a disable child in the family may adversely affect the quality of sibling relations, as well as the social development of the other child. Meyer and Vadasy[ 10 ] categorized the concern of children children with mental retardation and self esteem psychology essay disabled siblings under eight headings; feeling guilty because of their sibling's disorder, feeling embarrassed and avoiding contact with their sibling because of their behavior or the way they look, feeling frightened because they might get the same illness as their sibling, feeling jealous or angry because they are paid less attention, isolating themselves because they think nobody understands what they are going through, feeling pressurised to achieve more in order to compensate for what their sibling cannot achieve, feeling that they are obligated to look after their sibling even if it coincides with other responsibilities and plans they have made with their friends and feeling the need to learn more about their sibling's disorder.

Orsmond and Seltzer[ 11 ] expressed that, in general, disabled children tend not to think much about their siblings through life. According to Atasoy[ 12 ] determining the needs of children with disabled siblings in terms of influence and development is extremely important in self development, family interaction and developing children with mental retardation and self esteem psychology essay support system.

  1. Self-esteem showed no significant difference for children with and without mentally disabled siblings based on age, gender, occupation of mother, occupation of father, and what number child they were.
  2. Educ Train Ment Retard. The trait anxiety score mean for children with mentally disabled siblings that experienced issues in society 47.
  3. The level of trait anxiety was higher in children experiencing social issues. Effect of anxiety level and informing to anxiety level of the parents with mentally disabled children Prev Med Bull.
  4. Children's experiences with disabled and nondisabled siblings.

It is necessary to determine the difference between those with and without disabled siblings and define the issues in order to inform healthy children about their disabled siblings, share their emotions and relieve their psychological pressure.

In conclusion, defining problems may help the futures of families, with both disabled and healthy children and help them adapt to society.

Literature review has various studies that touch upon the subject of sibling relations between the healthy and the disabled and parental anxiety;[ 1314151617 ] however, there are not so many studies available that comparatively investigate the various variables that affect the anxiety and self-esteem of children with and without disabled siblings. In the event that mentally disable children had more than one literate healthy sibling, the sibling with the smallest birth year, within the given age range was chosen to participate in this study.

A multistage sampling method was used for children without disabled siblings; By clustered sampling method[ 21 ] two high schools were drawn among 36 Directorate of National Education High Schools in central Erzurum and one class was chosen from every year year 9, year 10, year 11 and year 12.

A total of 119 individuals were chosen from these classes using a simple random sampling method. The total number of individuals participating in the study was 227. The Personal Information Questionnaire, prepared by the children with mental retardation and self esteem psychology essay in accordance with information in literature,[ 1471213 ] comprised of two sections; the first section comprised of common questions based on the sociodemographic characteristics of children with and without mental disabled siblings; the second section comprised of questions that asked those with disabled siblings about their siblings.

Rosenberg self-esteem scale Rosenberg developed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 1965 as an instrument to measure the self-esteem directed at adolescents. The Cronbach Alpha for the scale in our study was 0.

The minimum score for Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is 0 and the maximum is 6. The Trait Anxiety Scale is a 20-item, four-point likert type scale. The minimum score for the Trait Anxiety Scale is 20 and the maximum is 80.

A high score indicates a high level of anxiety, while a low score indicates a low level of anxiety.

Background:

Ethical considerations Prior to the study, ethical permission was obtained from children with mental retardation and self esteem psychology essay Ethical Board Directorate, Clinical Researches, Provincial Directorate of Health, Governorship of Erzurum and official approval was received from the Provincial Directorate for National Education, Governorship of Erzurum.

It was key that the children and families participating in the study where doing so voluntarily. Both written and oral permission was obtained for families, after explaining the purpose of the study. Percentage distribution, mean, the t-test for independent groups, the Chi-square test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, the Mann-Whitney U test non-parametric tests were used with the aim of testing variables of ashame and guilty due to having mental retarded sibling [Mann-Whitney U test] and age when the mental retardation occured and the reason of mental retarded [the Kruskal-Wallis test] and variance analysis was used to analyse data.

No significant difference was found between the groups with mentally disabled siblings and without mentally disabled siblings when compared according to age, gender, occupation of mother, occupation of father, and what number child they were [ Table 1 ]. Table 1 Open in a separate window It was determined that the average age of mentally disabled children was 13.

The trait anxiety score mean for children with mentally disabled siblings 44. However, there was no significant statistical difference between their trait anxiety scores [ Table 2 ]. The trait anxiety score mean for children with mentally disabled siblings 47. The trait anxiety score mean for girls with mentally disabled siblings was 47. The trait anxiety score mean for children with mentally disabled siblings that experienced issues in society 47.

The self-esteem score mean for children experiencing problems with society due to their mentally disabled sibling 2. This finding indicates that the children have similar features in terms of the stated variables. In this study, 31. In this study, more than half of children with mentally disabled siblings were frightened of becoming disabled 68. Meyer and Vadasy[ 10 ] stated that children with mentally disabled siblings had various concerns; feeling guilty because of their sibling's disorder, feeling embarrassed and avoiding contact with their sibling because of their behaviour and the way they look and feeling frightened because they might get the same illness as their sibling.

After interviewing children with siblings that had various disabilities, McHugh[ 28 ] stated that nearly all of them suffered from guilt, embarrassment, fear and other similar emotional reactions. These emotions included guilt, embarrassment, neglect, and anger toward their disabled sibling.

Similar to our findings, Auletta and DeRosa[ 30 ] compared the self-concept of 70 adolescents with severe mentally disabled siblings to the self-concept of 70 adolescents with healthy siblings.

There was no significant difference between the self-concept of both groups. Dyson[ 31 ] compared the self-esteem of 71 brothers and sisters; 37 with siblings suffering from the developmental disorder physically and mentally handicapped, growth deficiency, speech impediment, learning disability and hyperactivity and 34 with healthy siblings.

He concluded that there was no significant between both groups in terms of self-esteem. They concluded that there was no significant difference between their self-esteem. These findings are similar to that of this study.

Van Riper[ 34 ] also stated that the level of self-esteem was high for children with disabled siblings. Furman and Buhrmester[ 35 ] emphasised that healthy children living with disabled siblings were more complacent toward personal differences. The level of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings aged between 17 and 18 was higher than those without mentally disabled siblings.

The ages of children with and without mentally disabled siblings affected the level of trait anxiety.

The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings

The reason why the level of trait anxiety is high in children with mentally disabled siblings may be because their responsibility toward their disabled sibling increases with age and they become more aware of the adverse results caused by the disability and the healthy children are in constant contact with their disabled sibling.

According to Breslau et al. In their studies, McHale and Gamble,[ 7 ] Gath and Gumley,[ 38 ] McHale and Harris[ 39 ] and Children with mental retardation and self esteem psychology essay 40 ] stated that girls took on more responsibilities regarding the houseworks and caring for their disabled sibling in comparison to the boys in the family. Lindsey and Stewart[ 41 ] emphasised that extensive responsibility increases adverse behaviour.

McHale and Gamble[ 7 ] conducted a study, in which they assessed the psychological adaptation and sibling relationships of children with and without mentally disabled siblings. They concluded that sisters girls had a higher depression and anxiety score than brothers boys ; sisters were left to attend and look after their siblings more often, sisters were more adversely affected than brothers and that the difference between the score mean of children with mentally disabled siblings and the score mean of children without mentally disabled siblings was significant.

Kraemer and Blacher[ 42 ] conducted a study on 77 parents with healthy children aged between 7 and 18 and children with Down syndrome. They concluded that having a disabled child in the family had no adverse affect; in fact they had a positive effect on their healthy siblings. Taking on important family roles increases the self-confidence of healthy children, makes them feel responsible and enables them to mature.

In the study, the level of trait anxiety was higher for those that felt guilty about their sibling's disability in comparison to those that felt no guilt about their sibling's disability. McHugh[ 28 ] stated that growing up with a disabled sibling was extremely distressful for a child, and that the guilt felt adversely affects their lives for many years.

Gargiulo[ 43 ] emphasised that healthy siblings frequently felt guilty because of their bad feelings towards their disabled sibling, or as a result of being mean to their disable sibling. Children afraid of being disabled and children embarrassed by their disabled sibling had a higher trait anxiety score mean. Gargiulo[ 43 ] stated that healthy children embarrassed by their disabled siblings faced fear. They fear that they may become disabled in the future, or that their children will be disabled.

The level of trait anxiety was higher in children experiencing social issues. McHale and Gamble[ 7 ] emphasise that growing up with a disabled sibling changes the daily life of healthy siblings in many ways and caused psychological adaptation and development difficulties. There was a negative relationship between the trait anxiety and self-esteem of children with and without mentally disabled siblings.

As self-esteem decreased, trait anxietyincreased. These findings support our study. Self-esteem showed no significant difference for children with and without mentally disabled siblings based on age, gender, occupation of mother, occupation of father, children with mental retardation and self esteem psychology essay what number child they were. The trait anxiety of children experiencing social issues because of their sibling's disability was higher in comparison to those that did not experience any social issues.

In the study, it was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.

Footnotes Conflict of Interest: The brother and sisters of mentally retarded children. Dunn J, Ve Boer F, editors. Developmental and Clinical Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers; 1992. Sibling relationships of children with disabled and nondisabled brothers and sisters. Psychological predictors of adjustment by siblings of developmentally disabled children.

Am J Ment Retard. Brookes Publishing Co; 2003. Workshops for Siblings of Children with Special Needs. Adolescent siblings of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder: Testing a diathesis-stress model of sibling well-being. J Autism Dev Disord. Analysis of sibling relations of the individuals who have disabled autistic siblings. Kaminsky L, Dewey D. Siblings relationships of children with autism. The adjustment of non-disabled siblings of children with autism.

Longitudinal relationships between sibling behavioral adjustment and behavior problems of children with developmental disabilities.