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An essay on the madness of gaius caligula of rome

Former Roman provinces Thrace and Commagena made client states by Caligula. In AD 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia — even challenging Neptune in his campaign. The conquest of Britannia was fully realized by his successors. Mauretania[ edit ] Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then suddenly had him executed.

Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions.

An essay on the madness of gaius caligula of rome

This trip to the An essay on the madness of gaius caligula of rome Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission. Ancient resources as well as recent archaeological evidence suggest that, at one point, Caligula had the palace extended to annex this structure. When several client kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he allegedly cried out the Homeric line: Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as HerculesMercuryVenus and Apollo.

Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own.

According to Cassius Dioliving emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippawho became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in AD 37.

Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for the purpose. The reverse shows Caligula's three sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia Livilla, with whom Caligula was rumoured to have carried on incestuous relationships.

Scandals[ edit ] Cameo depicting Caligula and a personification of Rome Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Youngercontemporaries of Caligula, describe him as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, angry, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the YoungerDrusillaand Livillaand say he prostituted them to other men.

In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government. The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the Senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery. With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators, who included Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Annius Vinicianusto put their plot into action quickly.

The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike.

Caligula Essay Research Paper Caligula The Madness

The cryptoporticus underground corridor beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill where this an essay on the madness of gaius caligula of rome took place was discovered by archaeologists in 2008.

After a soldier, Gratusfound Claudius hiding behind a palace curtain, he was spirited out of the city by a sympathetic faction of the Praetorian Guard [132] to their nearby camp.

He ordered the execution of Chaerea and of any other known conspirators involved in the death of Caligula. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus ; in 410, during the Sack of Romethe ashes in the tomb were scattered. Historiography[ edit ] Fanciful renaissance depiction of Caligula The history of Caligula's reign is extremely problematic as only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived — the works of Philo and Seneca.

Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus, give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators.

Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula. A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost.

Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepiduswho conspired against him.

Gaetulicusa poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they are lost. The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula 80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 180 years after Caligula's death. Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign.

A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula. Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligula's assassination.

Tacitus provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. In a now lost portion of his Annals, Tacitus gave a detailed history of Caligula. Pliny the Elder 's Natural History has a few brief references to Caligula. There are few surviving sources on Caligula and no surviving source paints Caligula in a favourable light. The paucity of sources has resulted in significant gaps in modern knowledge of the reign of Caligula.

Little is written on the first two years of Caligula's reign. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of MauretaniaCaligula's military actions in Britanniaand his feud with the Roman Senate. Health[ edit ] All surviving sources, except Pliny the Eldercharacterize Caligula as insane.

However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for his behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitisepilepsy or meningitis.