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An essay on nursing and the roys adaptation model

Step 1 involves learning the content of the conceptual model and its research and practice guidelines. Step 2 requires a review of literature about the use of the model as a basis for research or practice. Step 3 focuses on construction and communication of a conceptual- theoretical-empirical structure for diverse research topics and practice situations.

Emphasis is placed on application of the process to one conceptual model of nursing: The content of the paper reflects my belief that it is impossible to conduct nursing research or to practice nursing without guidance from a conceptual model. The paper content also reflects my beliefs that the product of research always is a theory, and that nursing practice should be guided by nursing theories that are derived from nursing conceptual models. The three steps are listed here. Develop a comprehensive understanding of the content and the research and practice guidelines of the conceptual model.

Review existing research and practice guided by the conceptual model. Construct and clearly communicate a conceptual-theoretical-empirical structure.

A conceptual model is made up of abstract and general concepts and statements about those concepts 3. The content of the Roy Adaptation Model, for example, is made up of such abstract concepts as environmental stimuli, coping processes, and modes of adaptation; the statements that broadly define each concept; and the statements that link the concepts see Figure 1. A narrative summary of the Roy Adaptation Model is given in Box 1. Narrative Summary of the Roy Adaptation Model Within the context of the Roy Adaptation Model, individuals and groups are regarded as adaptive systems whose behavior is a response to environmental timuli 4.

Roy 4 identified three types of environmental stimuli--focal, contextual, and residual—that she regards as constantly changing forces that affect individuals and groups. The focal stimulus is the one most immediately confronting an individual or a group.

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Residual stimuli are unknown factors that may be affecting the individual or group. When a residual stimulus is identified, it usually becomes a contextual stimulus but may turn out to be the focal stimulus. Environmental stimuli are directly related to coping processes 4 and both directly and indirectly related to the modes of adaptation 5. The indirect elation between environment stimuli and the modes of adaptation is mediated by the coping processes Individuals use two coping processes to filter nvironmental stimuli, which are called the regulator and the cognator.

The regulator coping process encompasses basic neural, chemical, and endocrine channels that process stimuli in an automatic, unconscious manner. Groups use two different coping processes to filter environmental stimuli, which are called the stabilizer and the innovator. The innovator coping process focuses on the mechanisms by which the group changes and grows. The physical mode of adaptation focuses on needs of the group for the basic resources needed to function.

The group identity mode of adaptation focuses on how the members of a group view themselves. The interdependence mode of adaptation emphasizes interpersonal relationships and the giving and receiving of social support.

  1. The use of nursing theories such as the Roy's Adaptation Model of Nursing adopted in the present study also represents an effort to validate such theories, of work organization, of production of knowledge and use of nursing specific terms. The environmental stimuli are divided into focal, contextual and residual stimuli 4.
  2. Ten studies that utilized different concepts and propositions of RAM were discussed.
  3. Evidence reveals that anemia accelerates the decline of renal function and its correction may interfere favorably in the evolution of CKD 16.

Roy Adaptation Model-based nursing interventions involve management of the environmental stimuli. Roy 4 recommends focusing on managing the focal stimulus, taking the contextual stimuli into account. Fawcett 3 identified guidelines for nursing research and guidelines for nursing practice based on the Roy Adaptation Model.

The guidelines for research are listed here 3, pp. The purpose of Roy Adaptation Modelguided research is to study the concepts and propositions of the model, which requires both basic nursing research and clinical nursing research.

The purpose of basic nursing research is to understand and explain people adapting within their life situations. The purpose of clinical research is to develop and test interventions and other strategies designed to enhance positive life processes and patterns.

The phenomena of interest to Roy Adaptation Model-guided research encompass the content that is depicted in Figure 1. The problems to be studied include those stemming from the attempts made by individuals to meet their needs for physiological, psychological, spiritual, social, and relational integrity, as well as problems stemming from attempts made by groups to meet their collective needs for resource adequacy, identity and relational integrity, and role clarity.

Participants in Roy Adaptation Modelguided research may be individuals or groups who are well or who have acute or chronic medical conditions. Appropriate research methods include qualitative and quantitative descriptive, correlational, and experimental research design. Data may be gathered in any health care setting in which human adaptive systems are found. Research instruments should reflect the unique focus and intent of the Roy Adaptation Model.

Data analysis techniques encompass qualitative content analysis and nonparametric and parametric statistical procedures, with an emphasis on statistical techniques that facilitate analysis of nonlinear and reciprocal relations. The guidelines for practice are listed here 3, p. The broad purpose an essay on nursing and the roys adaptation model Roy Adaptation Model—based nursing practice is to promote the ability of human adaptive systems to adjust effectively to changes in the environment and also to create changes in the environment.

Legitimate participants in nursing practice are human adaptive systems, including individuals, families and other groups, communities, and society, that are considered sick or well.

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Those adaptive systems may or may not manifest specific adaptation problems and ineffective behavioral responses. The nursing practice process is the Roy Adaptation Model nursing process. The components of the process are assessment of behavior, assessment of stimuli, nursing diagnosis, goal setting, intervention, and evaluation. The concepts of the conceptual model can be used as the basis for search terms and to categorize the results of the literature search.

That search term can be combined with the search term, research, as well as with one or more search terms that reflect the specific research topic or practice situation.

Combining the search terms, Roy Adaptation Model, research, and cesarean, will yield relevant literature. Or, suppose you are interested in the postpartum care of women who have had a cesarean delivery.

  • A theory is made up of relatively specific and concrete concepts and statements about the concepts 3;
  • State the linkages between the theory concepts and the empirical indicators— Theory concepta will be measured by Empirical Indicatora, Theory conceptb will be measured by Empirical Indicatorb, Theory conceptn will be measured by Empirical Indicatorn;
  • The citations to literature that are obtained from the search of the database can be retrieved, reviewed for relevance, and then categorized using the concepts of the conceptual model;
  • Clear communication can be accomplished by following the directions given here.

Literature that is relevant for this practice situation can be obtained by combining the search terms, Roy Adaptation Model, practice, postpartum, and cesarean. The citations to literature that are obtained from the search of the database can be retrieved, reviewed for relevance, and then categorized using the concepts of the conceptual model.

A worksheet that can be used to organize literature about the Roy Adaptation Model is shown in Table 1. An example of use of the worksheet is given in Table 2. The components of a CTE are the conceptual model C that is the basis for the research topic or practice situation, the theory T that is to be generated or tested, and the empirical indicators E that provide a way to directly observe the theory.

Recall that the definition of a conceptual model—the C component—is a set of abstract and general concepts and statements about those concepts. The concepts and statements that make up a conceptual model are too broad to be used directly in research or practice. Instead, theories— the T component - are derived from the conceptual model and then are translated into empirical indicators—the E component. A theory is made up of relatively specific and concrete concepts and statements about the concepts 3.

For example, a theory of adaptation to cesarean birth, which was derived from the Roy Adaptation Model, is made up of three concepts— type of cesarean birth planned or unplannedperception of the birth experience, and responses to cesarean birth, as well as the definition of each concept and three statements linking the concepts.

The type of cesarean birth is directly related to responses to childbirth, perception of the birth experience is related to responses to cesarean birth, and the indirect relation between the type of cesarean birth and responses to cesarean birth is mediated by perception of the birth experience 6.

An empirical indicator is a very concrete and specific substitute for a theory concept that allows the concept to be measured for research purposes or observed in practice situations 3.

Theory-Generating Research The CTE structure for theory-generating research is constructed inductively, proceeding from the conceptual model to the empirical indicators to the theory.

Inasmuch as theory-testing an essay on nursing and the roys adaptation model and practice are essentially the same process, the CTE structure is the same. This means that the research process and the nursing practice process are equivalent processes 7.

  • For data analysis we used SPSS version 16;
  • In the theoretical model proposed by Roy, the individual is perceived as a holistic adaptive system, which issues adaptive or inefficient responses; the environment is understood as all the conditions, circumstances and influences that surround and affect the individual's development and behavior;
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  • The content of the Roy Adaptation Model, for example, is made up of such abstract concepts as environmental stimuli, coping processes, and modes of adaptation; the statements that broadly define each concept; and the statements that link the concepts see Figure 1;
  • So, the nurse professional promotes patient adherence to the therapeutic regimen established;
  • Roy Adaptation Model-based nursing interventions involve management of the environmental stimuli.

For example, the statement of the problem in research is the same as the assessment phase of the nursing practice process, and conduct of the research is the same as the intervention phase of the nursing practice process. The narrative that accompanies the diagrams should clearly communicate what is illustrated in the diagram.

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Clear communication can be accomplished by following the directions given here. State the name of the conceptual model. Provide a narrative summary of the content of the conceptual model.

An example of the application of these directions is seen in Box 1, which contains the name of a conceptual model — the Roy Adaptation Model in this example — and a narrative summary of the content of that conceptual model. For theory-generating research, also follow these directions: State the linkage from the conceptual model to the empirical indicator-- Conceptual model concepta guided the construction of Interview Schedulez. State the linkages between the empirical indicators and the theory concept s --Analysis of the data obtained from study participants who responded to Interview Schedulez revealed the Theory of X, which is made up of the concept of A and its definition.

  • The environmental stimuli are divided into focal, contextual and residual stimuli 4;
  • One study 17 that involved 65 patient records, aimed to analyze the complications in hemodialysis patients, revealed that hypothermia was the second most prevalent complication in this population;
  • And the behaviors were;
  • The hormone erythropoietin is produced in the kidneys and has the function of producing red blood cells;
  • And finally, the sixth step is the evaluation, which involves judgment of the effectiveness of nursing intervention on the behavior of the human system 7.

An example of the application of these directions is seen in Box 2, which provides the narrative for the CTE structure illustrated in Figure 2. Content analysis of the data obtained from study participants, who provided answers to the open-ended questions on the CBEQ, revealed the Theory of Responses to esarean Birth.

The Theory of Responses to Cesarean Birth is made up of the concept of cesarean birth responses, which is defined as physical feelings, feelings about self, feelings about delivering by cesarean section, and feelings about the infant and other family members.

State the linkages between the conceptual model concepts and the theory concepts--Conceptual model concept A is represented by theory concepta.

Conceptual model concept B is represented by theory concept. Define each theory concept: State the linkages between the theory concepts and the empirical indicators— Theory concepta will be measured by Empirical Indicatora, Theory conceptb will be measured by Empirical Indicatorb, Theory conceptn will be measured by Empirical Indicatorn. An example of the application of these directions is seen in Box 3, which provides the narrative for the CTE an essay on nursing and the roys adaptation model illustrated in Figure 3.

The Roy Adaptation Model concept of environmental stimuli is represented by the theory concept of type of cesarean birth, which is defined as planned or unplanned cesarean delivery, as measured by an item on the Background Data Sheet.

The Roy Adaptation Model concept of the cognator coping processes is represented by the theory concept of perception of the birth experience, defined as feelings about labor or preoperative procedures, delivery, and initial contact with the infant, as measured by the Perception of Birth Experience Scale. However, the contributions will remain unrecognized if the work is not clearly communicated to others. Fawcett J, E Gigliotti. The Case of the Neuman Systems Model.

Nurs Sci Quarterly ; 14 4: Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and Theories. FA Davis Company; The Roy Adaptation Model. Upper Saddle River NJ: Japanese J Nurs Res ; 36 2: Fawcett J, Garity, J. Evaluating Research for Evidence-based Nursing Practice.

Fawcett J, Garity J. Evaluating Research for Evidence- based Nursing Practice.