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What are strength and weakness of wid and gad

Over the years development programs have been criticized for ignoring gender roles and the impact it has on women in the global south.

However we see a shift to integrate women into development programs in hopes of eradicating poverty and low social economical status Memorial University, 2013. In the last three decades, Women In Development, Woman And Development and Gender And Development paradigms have been so pervasive that they have shaped the course of development, especially were women are concerned.

What are strength and weakness of wid and gad

These approaches have changed the way in which society has interacted with women and gender in the economic sector. Gender is defined by FAO 2012 as the relations between men and women, both perceptual and material. Gender is not determined biologically, as a result of sexual characteristics of either women or men, but is constructed socially. It is a central organizing principle of societies, and often governs the processes of production and reproduction, consumption and distribution.

  • The central point of WAD is that women should be empowered economically, they should be emancipated from poverty as this will allow them to contribute and benefit from developments efforts Oishi; 2002;
  • Good planning was key to the strength of the canada-china wid project a m o n g donor agencies, wid and g a d have become the most common untested, and their theoretical underpinnings in practice are weak;
  • It was often claimed that a failure to fully integrate women into development efforts would be a waste of human resources;
  • In a nutshell it ignores the question of social relations between men and women and their impact in development;
  • Good planning was key to the strength of the canada-china wid project a m o n g donor agencies, wid and g a d have become the most common untested, and their theoretical underpinnings in practice are weak;
  • The WID perspective marked an important corrective action highlighting the fact that women need to be actively involved in development as active agents if effective and efficient development is to be achieved.

Development is a specified state of growth or advancement. Its main purpose was to integrate women previously viewed as passive beneficiaries of any advancement into the development process.

Carr 1997 points out that during this are development was only viewed in its economic sense. The approach therefore called for greater attention to women in development policy and practice.

Between men and women it emphasizes the need to challenge existing gender roles and relations. The WID perspective marked an important corrective action highlighting the fact that women need to be actively involved in development as active agents if effective and efficient development is to be achieved.

African countries viewed women as second class in both economic and political circles, thus policies that sidelined women were crafted. Since WID assumed that women were the same the world over, it gave women the opportunity of getting actively involved in development. Through women in development projects such as technology transfer, credit facilities and other interventions that have a welfare orientation especially of on projects of hygiene literacy and or child care are implemented.

Also WID focuses on advocacy strategies that are for more and equal participation of women in employment and other spheres of society economics in particular. Hence WID was more concerned with what women could offer to the success of development as opposed to what development could. When most countries attained their freedom in the 1950s and 1960s, women who took part in the struggle for independence felt that they should also participate in nation building activities together with men and this saw the birth of women and development WAD Sorensen; 1998.

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It is however important to note that the concept arose in the latter part of the 1970s and it criticized WID. Its origins are in the argument that that there should be a development approach to women that recognizes the dangers of integrating women into a patriarchal world.

The central point of WAD is that women should be empowered economically, they should be emancipated from poverty as this will allow them to contribute and benefit from developments efforts Oishi; 2002. Furthermore it stresses the power of women in society in terms of their knowledge, work, goals and their responsibilities and that the society should acknowledge the role that has always been played by women in the society.

It considers the modern day women who are involved in activities at workplaces and at home in trying to improve the society. Agriculture is a key activity that boosts the economy of many African countries and for long women are the ones who had been taking part in ensuring that high yields or production is reached every year.

Connell et al 1999 is of the assertion that WAD points out that although women are involved in such activities of development; the contributions of women have been overlooked and marginalized in national and donor development plans. It is important to note that marginalization and smallness of scale have limited the transformative potential of women. The approach what are strength and weakness of wid and gad sees women as a class, downplaying differences among women, particularly along racial and ethnic lines.

Moyoyetta 2004 is of the view that WAD sees both women and men as not benefitting from the global economic structures because of disadvantages due to class and the way wealth is distributed. In a nutshell it ignores the question of social relations between men and women and their impact in development. It also emerged from the grassroots organizational experiences and writings of Third World feminists.

GAD is concerned with addressing the root, inequalities of both gender and class that create many of the practical problems women experience in their daily lives as opposed to the WID approach that views the absence of women in development plans and policies as the problem. Unlike the WID, it addresses strategic interests such that it takes women as agents or enables women to become agents, it can improve the position of women in society and can empower women and transform gender relations and attitudes.

  • Between men and women it emphasizes the need to challenge existing gender roles and relations;
  • For instance in the creation of the Women's World Banking WWB , a nonprofit financial institution created in 1979 to give poor female entrepreneurs access to financing, market information, and training;
  • Connell et al 1999 is of the assertion that WAD points out that although women are involved in such activities of development; the contributions of women have been overlooked and marginalized in national and donor development plans;
  • These approaches have changed the way in which society has interacted with women and gender in the economic sector;
  • Conversation about the specific strengths and weaknesses of actors in the particular area of women's development wid approach, which focused on integrating women into current development gad approach.

Strategic interests for women arise from their disadvantaged position in society relative to that of men. Strategic interests are long-term, related to improving women's position. For example, empowering women to have more opportunities, greater access to resources, and more equal participation with men in decision-making would be in the long- term strategic interest of the majority of the world's men and women alike.

A case to note is the establishment of Women in mining in Zimbabwe. Its strength is on the ability to focus not just on women but also on the social relations between women and men, be it in the workplace or in any other settings it therefore seeks to address issues of access. One can argue that Zimbabwe had traits of this paradigm at independence because men and women it the work place received the same remuneration and they also had equal opportunities for employment. According to Rathgeber 1994 all the feminist theoretical and policy models outlined have one main weakness as they all assume that women are a homogenous group or category as they come in contact with the development process.

Hence they assume that all women in developing countries especially in Africa have similar experiences, needs, problems, interest, goals and aims.

But the needs of middle class women are not the same as the urban or rural poor and so development policies will affect both groups in the same way equally.

Although women are not fully involved in issues of development, they are some who have managed to take part in financial budgeting and management. For instance in the creation of the Women's World Banking WWBa nonprofit financial institution created in 1979 to give poor female entrepreneurs access to financing, market information, and training.

WWB's goal is to help poor women create wealth. It is also important to note that since the 1995 Beijing Conference on Women there has been a surge in gender-responsive budgeting Chiriga; 1998.

All The frameworks have made women to be recognized and also taken into consideration when making decisions and when enacting laws.

In Zimbabwe, the domestic violence act of 2007 was formulated in line with the provisions of GAD. The United Nations, through its various agencies, has also exhibited obvious shifts in its focus and its development thinking as it continues to address women's issues.

Pietila and Vickers 1990 documented these shifts and contributing factors stating that during the 1950s to 1960s, women's issues were seen mainly within the context of human rights. In the 1970s, the key role of women was better recognized, particularly in relation to efforts to relieve or solve problems in the fields of population, food and economic growth.

In the United Nations' earlier decades, women had been seen as objects. The organization made recommendations and enacted conventions for their protection and rights. In the 1970s, the formula was to integrate women into development.

Women were characteristically seen as resources, and their contributions were sought to enhance the development process and make it more efficient. For this purpose, the United Nations sought to improve the economic status of women as well as nutrition, health, and education of women.

It was often claimed that a failure to fully integrate women into development efforts would be a waste of human resources. Women's dignity and rights were not yet seen as a cause in themselves. The perennial nature of women's contribution to the economic well-being of their country's population was still unrecognized. In the 1980s the United Nations' Third Development Decade gave rise to a trend towards seeing women as equals, as agents and beneficiaries in all sectors and at all levels of the development process.

The year 1985 became a turning point in the history of women's issues in the UN system Pietila and Vickers; 1990. As much as the issue of empowerment is preached to women, the results are not forth coming because most women especially those who live in the remote areas, they are unaware of their rights and to those who have the information they are afraid of taking a step ahead because they will be labeled and segregated from the rest of the society.

More so, most women in African countries are still economically dependent and this limits their efforts to pursue anything else that is outside the basic needs of their what are strength and weakness of wid and gad.

According to Moser 1993 WID, WAD and GAD gradually moved from an emphasis upon culture and national character, as variables explaining underdevelopment, top a focus on structural factors resulting from particular from relationships among industrialized and poor countries over time.

Violence against women is an increasingly serious problem in African countries.

  1. The wid, wad, gad approach on gender development the strength and weakness of wid,wad and gad to my email help me. Connell et al 1999 is of the assertion that WAD points out that although women are involved in such activities of development; the contributions of women have been overlooked and marginalized in national and donor development plans.
  2. The WID perspective marked an important corrective action highlighting the fact that women need to be actively involved in development as active agents if effective and efficient development is to be achieved. In the 1980s the United Nations' Third Development Decade gave rise to a trend towards seeing women as equals, as agents and beneficiaries in all sectors and at all levels of the development process.
  3. According to Rathgeber 1994 all the feminist theoretical and policy models outlined have one main weakness as they all assume that women are a homogenous group or category as they come in contact with the development process. Development is a specified state of growth or advancement.

As far as these frameworks have played a role in development it is also important to note that domestic violence is still a major component if not in a limelight just as sexual jealousies and suspicions caused by women leaving the home to work are a factor. So, too, is the management of domestic finances. Women are also routinely harassed by strangers on the street especially when passing where commuter omnibus operators park their vehicles and women are also harassed by their super-visors at their places of work.

In the light of the above discussion it can be noted that WID, WAD and GAD as development approaches have laid a platform and a foundation for gender equality and equity the betterment of women in developing countries.

However they fall short in their numerous efforts to fully articulate the experiences of gender and development in developing countries.