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Thesis on impact of training and development on employees performance

The amount, and quality of training carried out varies enormously from organization to organization due to factors such as the degree of external change, for instance, new markets or new processes, the adaptability of existing workforce and importantly the extent to which the organization supports the idea of internal career development.

Most organizations meet their needs for training in an ad hoc and haphazard way whiles others set about identifying their training needs, then design training activities in a rational manner and finally assess the results of training. The research was intended to determine the role and impact of training on employees with emphasis on the lower, middle level staff and the administrators of GPHA, who were randomly selected.

The study assessed the training and development process of GPHA and whether training has improved employee performance.

A questionnaire was designed using structured questions to collect primary data from employees of GPHA. Personal interviews were held with some management staff of the organization.

The effect of training & development and employee engagement on perceived business performance

Most of the employees were of the view that training and development were effective tools for both personal and organizational success. The findings revealed that training practices, methods and activities at GPHA are not in line with the best practices regarding the planned and systematic nature of the training process as is generally known. It was recommended among other things, that the processes involved in training be duly followed, GPHA should help its staff identify their career paths and to guide them in the pursuit of higher education.

Chapter one outlines the background, problem statement, main and specific objectives of the study. The chapter continues by highlighting the research questions, significant, scope, limitations, and the organization of the study.

Effective training is beneficial for the firm in variety of ways, such as, it plays a vital role in building and maintaining capabilities, both on individual and organizational level, and thus participates in the process of organizational change Valle et al.

Moreover, it enhances the retention capacity of talented workforce, hence decreasing the unintentional job rotation of the workers Shaw et al. All these contributions lead to achieving competitive advantage Youndt et al. Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization.

Therefore, training can be put in a contact relevant to public sector administrators. However, knowledge is the ability, the skill, the understanding, the information, which every individual requires in order to be able to function effectively and perform efficiently Mamoria, 1995 Abiodun 1999 submitted that: Training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job.

It can take place in a number of ways, on the job or off the job; in the organization or outside organization. Adeniyi 1995 observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore, provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training. The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization.

It follows therefore that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals need to acquire the thesis on impact of training and development on employees performance skills and knowledge. In appreciation of this fact, public sector organizations conduct training and development programmes for different levels of their manpower.

Usually, before training or development programmes are organized efforts are being made through individuals and organizational appraisals to identify the training needs. After the training and development programmes, an evaluation is carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the programme in line with the need, which had been identified.

It is worthy of mention that organization development follows the development of individual who form the organization. It follows that no organization becomes effective and efficient until the individual have and apply the required skills and knowledge. Training has been observed as part of human development.

In principle, these choices can be infinite and change over time. But at all levels of development, the three essential ones are for people to live a long and healthy life, to acquire knowledge through training, and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. If these essential choices are not available many other opportunities remain inaccessible Baruch, 2006. According to human development experts is clearly only one option that people would like to have, albeit an important one.

Development must therefore be more than just the expansion of income and wealth. HDR 1990 since administering involves the creation and maintenance of an environment for performance, working closely or in isolation towards the accomplishment of common goals, it is obvious that administrators cannot be successful without well skilled and well trained people.

The importance of incorporating training into organizational or institutional roles the staffing of these roles and the entire process of direction and leading people must be premises on knowledge and skills.

The need for improved productivity in organization has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus, the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. However, the need for organizations to embark on staff development programme for employees has become obvious.

Absence of these programmes often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness Arnoff, 1997. Oribabor 2000 submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth, also Isyaku 2000 postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one.

Griffin 1978 has drawn the attention of the entire sundry to the inestimable value of training and development. It is an avenue to acquire more and new knowledge and develop further the skills and techniques to function effectively. Scholars, experts, social scientist and public sector administrators now recognize the fact that training is obviously indispensable not only in the development of the individuals but also facilitate the productive capacity of the workers.

Training is not coaxing or persuading people to do what is wanted but rather a process of creating organizational conditions that will cause personnel to strive for better performance. Among other schools that highlighted the usefulness of training are Akintayo 1996Oguntimehin 2001 and Graig 1976.

They identified the functions of training as follow: Pitfield 1982 is of the opinion that the objectives of training are to: Chris Obisi 1996 submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, thesis on impact of training and development on employees performance, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth.

Also Akinpeju 1999 postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one. Many organizations in Ghana and indeed the public sector engage in training and development of staff and have departments, units and sectors in charge of training and development. GPHA is one such organization that has been practicing training and development since its beginning and particularly for the past ten 10 years.

However, for some years now it appears training in Ghana Ports Harbours Authority is haphazard, unplanned and unsystematic, and several of its employees such as machine operators, junior and middle level engineers, accounts clerks, computer operators, secretaries, drivers and many other category of workers, have not qualified for any form of training nor is there any systematic process of staff development in place.

A brief interaction with some employees did show that Management of Ghana Ports Harbours Authority see the cost incurred in the acquisition and maintenance of plant and equipment as more relevant than that expense on training and development of its staff.

  1. Also, the training and development process should be quantitative and effective.
  2. A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Master degree of Business Administration of Mzumbe University.
  3. Also, the training and development process should be quantitative and effective.
  4. The research intended to investigate the service quality in social security scheme in Tanzania, a case study of NSSF headquarters whereby the objective of this study is to assess the impact of training and development on employees performance, to identify the contribution of training and deveoping employees in their working areas as well as to find out other people-management activities that impact on perfomance apart from training and development in working places. In principle, these choices can be infinite and change over time.

In the absence of training and development of employees by Management of Ghana Ports Harbors Authority, the employees sponsored themselves in furtherance of their education to obtain professional or higher level certificates.

Employees who expressed the desire to pursue university education were not given any form of assistance like study leave with pay. Their applications for study leave were turned down with those who were persistent being advised to resign. Those who sought for part-time programs were disengaged after their studies as management claimed their programs were not relevant to the job. The few ones who were retained had no promotion to match their added skills and competencies.

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This it is believed to have led to high labor turnover in the organization. The study was therefore to assess the role of training on the human resource and how this affects worker performance. To be able to achieve this, the following specific objective has been identified 1. Finally, it is to aid management of GPHA to introduce modern schemes for training and development, to be able to meet the challenges of change in the future.

Accordingly the analysis and conclusions will be based on this time period. The absence or inaccessibility of reliable records and reports on GPHA activities within the past ten years also limited the research investigation. The unwillingness of Management to divulge strategic information in the name of confidentiality is a limitation to the study. Chapter one introduces the study by giving the background information on the research problem, main and specific objectives.

Chapter two deals with the review of relevant literature on the research problems and concepts with thesis on impact of training and development on employees performance reference to how it applies to Ghana Port and Harbor Authority. Chapter three discusses the research methodology adopted for the study and relevant justifications. It outlines the methodology for carrying out the secondary and primary data collections and how results were analyzed.

Chapter four presents the findings on the practices and impact of training and development in Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority. Chapter five gives the conclusions drawn from the research findings and recommendations to enhance organizational effectiveness through training, and to ensure a stable and committed human resource. This chapter deals with the review of relevant literature on the research problems and concepts with specific reference to how it applies to Ghana Port and Harbor Authority.

The Effects of Training and Development on Employee Performance in the Public Sector of Ghana

A considerable number of individual studies and meta-analytic reviews of training and development have taken a multi-dimensional perspective enveloping the needs of individuals, teams, organizations and the society at large to document evidence of a positive impact on them. A training and development program - an essential Human Resource Development HRD function of any organization - addresses a discrepancy between the current performance of the employee and what is expected of him.

This literature review offers a critique of the relevant conceptual account on the topic. Training-related activities result in improved job performance and other positive changes e. Barber 2004 found that training led to greater innovation and tacit skills. Training may not only affect declarative or procedural knowledge but also may enhance strategic knowledge which is defined as knowing when to apply a specific knowledge or skill Kozlowski et al.

Studies made by Morey et al.

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Several studies have also documented the impact of training on the organizational performance. Results of the research by Aragon-Sanchez et al. Similarly, it is also observed that 4. The adoption of many policies to encourage the design and delivery of training programs at the national level is the recognition of the benefits of training activities for society Herman Aguinis and Kurt Kraiger, 2009.

Most of the researches on the relationship between training activities and their benefits for society have been conducted by economists; the focal dependent variable is national economic performance. Becker 1964 observed that training efforts produce improvements in the quality of the labor force, which in turn is one of the most important contributors to national economic growth. It is imperative to focus and to adequately and properly demonstrate and communicate that training efforts are making worthwhile contributions.

Sackett and Mullen, 1993 suggested that the purpose of evaluation is to help organizations make decision about future training activities, and provide tools needed to assess the type of evaluation possible in a given situation, to conduct the most informative evaluation possible, given the constraints of the situation, and to communicate to organizational decision makers both the strengths and the limitations of whatever evaluation data is obtained.

The findings of the study by Grider et. They also opine that organizations should establish an information network to facilitate access to necessary data for before and after measurement.

Saxena 1997 reported that the actual practice of evaluation in many organizations did not often follow the strict recommendations of evaluation literature. However, Campbell 1998 suggested evaluation can provide a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment to the personnel associated with a course or program.

The key messages from the literature reviewed include that Training evaluation can take many forms and the components it includes should be selected according to the information needed and how those information are expected to be used. It should essentially look at the whole training cycle and not just at the course itself, including needs assessment, design, delivery and follow up. The focus of training is the job or task for example, the need to have efficiency and safety in the operation of particular machines or equipment, or the need for an effective sales force to mention but a few.

Training is the planned and systematic modification of behavior through learning events, activities and programs which results in the participants achieving the levels of knowledge, skills, competencies and abilities to carry out their work effectively Gordon 1992: This means for any organization to succeed in achieving the objectives of its training program, the design and implementation must be planned and systematic, tailored towards enhancing performance and productivity.

The Manpower Services commission of the United Kingdom, which was set up by the 1973 Employment and Training Act defined training as a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge thesis on impact of training and development on employees performance skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities.