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The use of figurative language in ap

June 14, 2016, 11: The AP English Literature rhetorical terms defined and described below are only a sampling of the many concepts that could appear on the test. However, these 15 terms are some of the must-know concepts necessary for success in the English Literature exam.

I Have A Dream Speech Analysis Lesson Plan

Studying These Terms I personally found writing the words and their definitions over and over again, an approach known as inculcation, to be the best way for me to master this vocabulary before I took the AP English Literature exam. Compartmentalization the use of figurative language in ap a very useful study skill we can employ in exploring AP English Literature rhetorical terms.

Try not to consider the list as a whole. Consider the 15 rhetorical terms below the first set of words for you to study. Alliteration The repetition of the same initial consonants of words or of stressed syllables in any sequence of neighboring words Purpose: Alliteration highlights a particular part of a piece through the repetition of initial consonants.

The repetition of certain sounds creates emphasizes not only the words in the passage themselves but on the pattern, creating a musical effect. Allusion An indirect or passing reference to an event, person, place, or artistic work Purpose: More often than not, an allusion in a literary work refers to some feature of another, previous literary work. Analogy Comparing two things or instances in time often based on their structure and used to explain a complex idea in simpler terms Purpose: Antithesis A device used to create contrast by placing two parallel but opposite ideas in a sentence Purpose: Antithesis literally means opposite, but the rhetorical definition calls for parallel structures of contrasting words or clauses.

These opposing words or clauses are placed in close proximity within a sentence in order to create a focal point for the reader.

Consonance Repetition of consonant sounds two or more times in short succession within a sentence or phrase Purpose: Consonance is, again, a device used by writers in order to create focus on a particular part of a piece. In many cases, consonance appears in poetry as a device used to create slant rhymes.

  • Allegory - A story in which people, things, and events have another meaning;
  • Show the video of the speech, and while students are watching, ask them to underline and label examples of literary terms that they find.

This is important to define because understanding diction allows the reader to identify other concepts like the tone of a piece, the intended audience, or even the era in which the piece was written.

Notice repetitive words, phrases, and thoughts. Ellipsis When one or more words are omitted from a sentence Purpose: Often, ellipsis is used to omit some parts of a sentence or even an entire story, forcing the reader to figuratively fill in the gaps.

This heavily depends on the reader being not only invested but also immersed in the story enough to care about what happens during those gaps. Ethos A characteristic spirit of a given culture, era, or community or its beliefs; Ethos, in purely rhetorical terms, is a label used to identify an appeal to the ethics of a culture or individual Purpose: Identifying an ethical appeal will be of particular use to readers when analyzing the work of the ancients.

Consider the overlap between diction and appeal.

15 Must Know Rhetorical Terms for AP English Literature

Hyperbole An intentionally exaggerated statement or claim not meant to be taken literally but creating a desired humorous effect Purpose: A hyperbole involves exaggeration in order to create emphasis.

Imagery Visually descriptive or figurative language Purpose: Imagery is used to characterize objects, actions, and ideas in a way that appeals to our physical senses.

  1. The interpolated narrations in the novels of Cervantes or Fielding may be called digressions, and Tristram Shandy includes a digression on digressions.
  2. These opposing words or clauses are placed in close proximity within a sentence in order to create a focal point for the reader. We know and see that a large man is not, in fact, tiny, yet we employ the nickname ironically.
  3. The miller, for example, is described as being brawny and big-boned, able to win.
  4. In the Wordsworth passage on the 1992 exam, the tone moves from quiet to apprehensive to confident to exuberant to terrified to panic to uncertain to restive in only twenty-five lines.
  5. Dactyl - A metrical foot of three syllables, an accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables. Denotation — The dictionary meaning of a word, as opposed to connotation.

The true purpose of imagery is to create a visual imagination of the scenarios or things being described. Again, consider the diction of the piece. Evocative words that arouse the senses—touch, sight, smell, etc.

A writer utilizes irony to show that the words they use do not necessarily represent their intended meaning. Further, irony can be manifest as a situation that does not pan out the way that the audience, speaker, or characters believe it will. We know and see that a large man is not, in fact, tiny, yet we employ the nickname ironically.

Oxymoron A figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction Purpose: An oxymoron is a juxtaposition of two opposing words with the intended effect of creating emphasis through the nonsensical nature of this device.

Oxymoron is used to characterize conflicting emotions, thoughts, or occurrences. An easy example of oxymoron is a two-word, adjective and noun construction such as original copy 13. Pathos A quality that evokes pity or sadness Purpose: Pathos is a term used to identify an appeal to the pathetic.

Studying These Terms

A writer may want a reader to sympathize with a character and employ a pathetic appeal to inspire feelings of pity, sympathy, or sadness. Examples of pathetic appeals are, once more, bound to diction.

  1. Syllogism — A form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a conclusion is drawn from them. Personification King is casting American society as a person who has done African-Americans wrong.
  2. Pathos A quality that evokes pity or sadness Purpose. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.
  3. Again, consider the diction of the piece. Antecedent — That which goes before, especially the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers.
  4. Soliloquy — A speech in which a character who is alone speaks his or her thoughts aloud.

Look for clues in word choice that indicate an appeal to the emotions of an individual. A good, though sometimes sad, example of pathos is a call for donations to cancer research which features the stories or pictures of survivors and sufferers.

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Personification The attribution of a personal nature or human characteristic to a nonhuman or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.

Employing symbolism is a way for a writer to attach meaning to an object or action, some symbol within the piece, that goes beyond the face-value of the symbol itself. Symbols represent something more than their literal meanings. However, figuratively speaking, the beginning of a new day signifies a new start.