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The stereotyping of the minority groups all around the world

Yet, this loaded word is still irresponsibly and casually used in news media outlets to paint a portrait of Islamic radicalism, while demonizing Muslims. In the last decade, the media has managed to educate and inform people about Islam and the Middle East, but it has also blurred the lines of religion and nationality, individuality and categories and created a narrow and repackaged image of Islam and Muslims. This is the power of mass media. The Netherlands has traditionally been known for its values of inclusion, compromise and societal tolerance, but within recent decades racism and stereotyping has become more prominent in the news media.

In the context of immigration, journalists, television programs and various media outlets intrinsically are a part and a reflection of the complex relationship between ethnic minorities and the cultural status quo of tolerance. Although it is the cultural norms and worldviews of Dutch society that continue to shape what is discussed in the public discourse, the media also influences and perpetuates stereotypes of Muslims, non-Western foreigners and immigrants.

With its position and influence in society, the role of mass media has shifted from truth-telling and informing the public to also influencing attitudes, establishing cultural references and even perpetuating stereotypes commonly associated with marginalized populations.

These issues of stereotyping and polarization in reporting are further exacerbated in the context of Dutch tolerance, where crime, poverty, security, immigration and culture can be painted in black or white, rather than in nuance.

By far, mass media is incredibly instrumental in shaping the conversation and culture in society, and because of this it serves as a powerful outlet of information. With the increasing multicultural society in the Netherlands, this article aims to explore Dutch media and its portrayal of ethnic minorities.

This article also explores the question of accountability and transparency in mass media in reporting sensitive issues that may intentionally or unintentionally create stereotypes.

In the past decades, cultural diversity in employment the stereotyping of the minority groups all around the world visibility in the media have been given considerable encouragement, but still ethnic minorities in Dutch society feel that they are not fairly represented in mainstream media. The study showed that the majority of journalists are male, white and on average 42 years old, and have worked in the media for about 17 years Ouaj, 1999. Muslims especially have turned towards global media to watch unfiltered breaking news in the Middle East such as the popular Arab news channel Al Jazeera.

The study discussed the relationship between the media and migrants on the basis of existing literature and general insights with the main topics focusing on the role of TV reporting, the attitude of journalists, media recruitment policies and the portrayal of Muslims ERCOMER, 2002.

Just by looking at themes of television programs about ethnic minorities, the common topics of discussion and debate include: Although racism and anti-racism were important issues, racism was largely reported in relation to right-wing extremism and racist violence, while anti-racism reports were mostly related to mass mobilization, protest meetings and demonstrations.

This goes to show that the mainstream media produces news and stories that are indeed polarizing and overly simplified to the public. This oversimplification of stories, conflicts and culture in the mainstream media presents a narrow view of ethnic minorities, especially Muslims, and alienates an increasingly culturally diverse population in the Netherlands. It has become a norm to see ethnic minorities associated with issues of immigration, crime, poverty, asylum and displacement and global security, but what exactly happened to create the media furor we see today when it comes to ethnic minorities in the Netherlands?

The Twin Towers The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, are the tipping point in the way Muslims were portrayed in the media. Before the terrorist attacks, Muslims and Islam were not perceived as a threat to society, the stereotyping of the minority groups all around the world after the bombing of the Twin Towers in New York, the cultural beliefs, practices and traditions of Muslims were constantly questioned.

In the case of the Netherlands, this was especially so for people of Moroccan and Turkish descent. The fear of terrorism was directly related to Islam and Muslims, which caused for a wave of negative and stereotyping reports of Muslims.

Mass Media: The Construction of Ethnic Stereotypes

In the Dutch media practices, Muslims were constantly questioned and criticized, whereby the practice of wearing headscarves was considered as the oppression of women, which caused for a new wave of stereotyping and oversimplification in media whereby Islam was perceived as a misogynistic religion. The generalization and stigmatization of Muslims caused for social unrest and division in society, whereby Muslims were constantly confronted about cultural and religious aspects, which often were incorrectly interrelated and caused for even more confusion within the multicultural society.

Fortuyn and Van Gogh The murders of politician Pim Fortuyn in 2002 and film director Theo van Gogh in 2004 shocked the nation and stirred up the debate about Islam. He was labeled as a far-right populist by his opponents and the media. It was a turning point of the political landscape in the Netherland, in which populism took on the overhand and harshened language used by politicians with regard to Muslims and Islam. The media picked up this development in the political landscape, which led to an increase of reporters framing Moroccans or Islam primarily negatively, such that the linking of Moroccans youths with extremism and radicalization, whereby these youngsters were portrayed as a threat for the Dutch society.

In 2002, Fortuyn was assassinated by Volkert van der Graaf, who was known as a vegan animal rights campaigner. Theo van Gogh was a public figure in the Netherland who was a film producer, a film director, columnist and an actor. Hirsi Ali and Van Gogh collaborated in the making of the short film Submission 2004in which the position of women in Islam was questioned and criticized.

The making of this film caused for commotion in the public debate about Islam and raised resistance within the Muslim community in the Netherlands, because the film was perceived as overall stereotyping and negative frame-working of the Islam as misogynistic. Whereby, gender and sexual politics were important topics in his view on practices of immigrants.

Some described Van Gogh as a freedom writer while others found him extreme in his statements about Muslims and the Islam. Whatever viewpoint one takes, it cannot be denied that Van Gogh did change the atmosphere of the public debate with regard to immigration, integration and Islam in the Netherlands.

The polarization of the society, whereby Islam was perceived as a threat, caused for a wave of negative, stereotyping associations in the the stereotyping of the minority groups all around the world. Muslims were being portrayed as extremist, which caused a one-sided and biased stereotyping perspective and an overall negative framework. Politician Geert Wilders, who is a populist politician and founder of the Partij voor de Vrijheid, picked up on the agitation with regard to Islam and Moroccans in society and played a tremendous role in continuing the portrayal of Islam as a danger for the Dutch traditions, culture and identity.

  • Stereotype threat is best known for its influence in testing situations;
  • Furthermore, he argues that there is not much representation of minority groups in the Dutch media, especially in newspapers;
  • In stark contrast to this neglect are the systematic detrimental effects suffered by immigrants in educational systems around the globe;
  • We further examined whether results differed between studies with Latinos in the US versus different immigrant groups in European countries.

He used the political and social unrest with regard to Islam for his political agenda, in which Islam is perceived as a religion that has no enrichment for the Netherlands and that immigrants from Islamic countries should be banned.

His statements and vision about Islam, Muslims and Moroccans caused for further division in the multicultural society. There have been many objections on the discourse of the public debate — with regard to Islam and the way that Muslims were portrayed in the media. The oversimplification of Muslims in the media and no representation or development of inclusion in order to combat the negative stereotyping of Muslims is causing a distorted view of Muslims and Islam in the multicultural society and is still dominantly present in the Dutch media.

The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis

Black Pete and Tradition In the Netherlands, Saint Nicholas is a very old tradition that is annually celebrated on the 5th of December. The tradition of Saint Nicholas is often perceived as the core to Dutch national folklore.

Every year, Saint Nicholas makes his entry accompanied by black-faced helpers: Since 2011 the discussion about Black Pete has got more intense and opened up to a broader public.

  • De Telegraaf, one of the most read newspapers in the Netherlands, went even one step further and made a very distasteful comparison between Black Pete and Nelson Mandela, whereby it was stated that with the death of Mandela on the 5th of December, 2013, Black Pete also had passed away;
  • And this very decision of what is important and what not has a considerable impact on the way that the reader or viewer interprets and values the message;
  • The reduced working memory in turn leads to underperformance in cognitively challenging tasks e.

The Black Pete debate did not stay unnoticed in the international community. Public figures such as Anouk Teeuwe, who is a famous singer, stated on Facebook and Twitter that she is very much ashamed of the Black Pete tradition in the Netherlands and that it should change. De Telegraaf, one of the most read newspapers in the Netherlands, went even one step further and made a very distasteful comparison between Black Pete and Nelson Mandela, whereby it was stated that with the death of Mandela on the 5th of December, 2013, Black Pete also had passed away.

How can it be possible that a symbolic person such as Mandela — who changed history, and who has done so much to combat Apartheid in South Africa and had such an important role as an advocate for various social and human rights organizations — be linked to Black Pete?

It can be questioned that if the Black Pete tradition really has nothing to do with racism or discrimination, how come that so many racist arguments are being stated in the Dutch media with the discourse of this public debate? Up to now most politicians in the Netherlands remained silent with regard to the debate of Back Pete, which caused for a lot of frustration among the Black Pete protesters.

Because politicians neglect to recognize the arguments of Black Pete opponents, there is the stereotyping of the minority groups all around the world feeling as if their worries are not being considered as a priority in the course this public debate. At the moment, the discussion with regard to the features of Black Pete is still continuing. There is a pending court case about the characteristics of Black Pete and whether it is a racist element of the Saint Nicholas tradition.

On July 2014 in Amsterdam, a judge — in a first instance — stated that Black Pete is a negative stereotype. The city of Amsterdam went in appeal; at the moment no further outcomes are presented with regard to the features of Black Pete, and the public debate is still in progress.

The media still reports frequently about the developments around Black Pete, because it has such an important impact on the Dutch Saint Nicholas tradition, of which Black Pete seemingly is considered as an indispensable element.

The latter can be argued since that traditions and cultural elements are never static but dynamic — especially within a multicultural society, and that should be taken in consideration as well.

Therefore, as stated in The Economist it cannot be denied that, if the tradition of Black Pete was perceive as not racist by Black Pete defenders before, the discourse of this public debate has been the tipping point for the linkage of racism and Black Pete now.

Inclusion and Diversity in the Media The term tolerance has become misleading. It does not assume that there is equality among people. Senior Fellow Cihan Tekeli perceives the term tolerance as problematic. Tekeli believes that the real question rather is: When you say allochthonous, you think about certain people from non-western background, and most of the time it has a negative framework.

Tekeli finds it astonishing that the term autochthonous is almost never mentioned in the media and states that it can be questioned why there is such a focus on the term allochthonous and not on the term autochthonous. Therefore he believes that there is a selective usage of wording in the Dutch media. Furthermore, he argues that there is not much representation of minority groups in the Dutch media, especially in newspapers.

He finds this lacking, and if there is representation, mostly it is considered as one-sided or stereotyping. In order to change the way that minority groups are being portrayed in the Dutch media, it should be more diverse, because it is important that these different groups are being represented in the media in various ways.

Therefore, if you want a public debate you need people who disagree, and that is good. Tekeli is conscious of the fact that it is impossible to represent everyone in the media, but emphasizes the importance of journalists trying to listen to different voices because they do have a responsibility for good journalism. Whereby, there should be awareness among journalists because they are the first guardians of society and they should criticize social issues and at the same time also be self-critical, but unfortunately, he argues, at the moment the latter is lacking in the Dutch media.

Therefore, with his media platform, he wants to combat negative stereotyping images and provide a positive framework in the way that these youngsters are being portrayed. As former mentor of the ECHO Junior Academy, he learned that in order to raise more self-awareness of young people with various ethnic backgrounds, it is important to have positive role models in the media so they can recognize themselves in a positive framework.

Heilbron believes that, in the Dutch media, youngsters from diverse backgrounds are primarily portrayed in a one-sided and negative framework and that he wants change. Therefore, with his media platform, he aims to inspire youngsters with various ethnic backgrounds and provide a positive framework in the way they are portrayed. Every person is unique, nobody is the same, and there are differences but also similarities. The media has tremendous power when it comes to shaping public opinion.

  • Importantly, the women with the growth mindsets were just as aware of negative stereotypes about women in math, but their mindsets gave them a resilience that helped them overcome those stereotypes;
  • Accordingly, standardized testing suggests that it is exactly these groups that are most likely to show impaired performance compared to non-immigrants or more positively stereotyped immigrant groups OECD, 2010;
  • Zicht op ontwikkelingen omtrent de islam in Nederland pp;
  • This status quo is particularly troublesome as the percentage of children and adolescents with an immigrant background is growing in many countries around the world, and immigration will likely be an even more prevalent phenomenon in the future OECD, 2013;
  • Second generation immigrants i.

Indeed, the media play a central role in the process of ethnic categorization and in reinforcing and spreading negative stereotypes of these groups. Even though journalists may strive for objectivity, this aim is impossible to achieve.

Instead, the words and general tone that are used by the journalist broadcast an opinion, whether it be conscious or unconscious.

Reducing the Impact of Negative Stereotypes on the Careers of Minority and Women Scientists

When someone decides to use the word "terrorist" instead of "freedom fighter," for example, it quickly becomes clear which side of the debate he is on. In reporting, the norms and values of society are mirrored and new norms and values are constructed. Indeed, writers have much influence on the way in which messages are put across, and how much value these messages are given. They use certain frames, and in doing so they highlight and select certain aspects of an event.

This way, the text becomes more orderly and less chaotic. At the same time, however, other information is left out and considered to be insignificant. And this very decision of what is important and what not has a considerable impact on the way that the reader or viewer interprets and values the message.

The headline "Dutch taxpayers' money goes to Turkey" leaves a much more negative impression than "Dutch people from Turkish descent receive subsidies," for example. Taking a look at the media in the Netherlands, we see that ethnic minorities and Muslims are continuously represented by negative frames. Headlines about "Moroccan youth" and crime are common.

Indeed, in the frames that are used to describe these groups, their Dutch nationality is often neglected, their ethnicity is emphasized and they are more often related to crime, dependency on social services, terrorism, unemployment and drugs than autochthonous Dutch people. Simultaneously, the religious background of these groups is oversimplified and considered to be the cause of this negative behavior. Socioeconomic factors are neglected, even though such factors are a much better predictor of negative behavior in societies.

The result of the use of these frames is that minorities are being stereotyped and stigmatized. It is thus not surprising that many people from these minorities are not content with the way in which they are represented in the media.