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The political history of italy during the expulsion of the etruscans

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. The core of the territory of the Etruscans, known as Etruria to the Latins, was northwest of the Tiber River, now in modern Tuscany and part of Umbria. Origins There are three theories that seek to explain the obscure origin of the Etruscans.

Etruscan Civilization

Their language and culture differed markedly from that of other ancient peoples of the Italian peninsula at the time—Villanovans, Umbrians, and Picenes. As a result, many scholars long upheld the tradition of Herodotus that the Etruscans migrated to Italy from Lydia in the 12th cent.

BC to escape a severe famine. Other scholars have argued that the Etruscans are an ancient people, indigenous to Italy, whose customs are merely distinct from other Italian peoples. The third theory—that the Etruscans came down from the north through the Alpine passes—has been largely discredited.

Genetic studies in the early 21st cent. Rise and Fall Regardless of the obscurity of their origins, it is clear that a distinctive Etruscan culture evolved about the 8th cent.

  • The so-called battle of the grain did succeed in increasing grain production;
  • His opponents did nothing.

BC, developed rapidly during the 7th cent. Etruria had no centralized government, but rather comprised a loose confederation of city-states. The political domination of the Etruscans was at its height c. During this period the Etruscans were a great maritime power and established colonies on Corsica, Elba, Sardinia, the Balearic Islandsand on the coast of Spain.

In the late 6th cent. The Romans, whose culture had been greatly influenced by the Etruscans the Tarquin rulers of Rome were Etruscanswere distrustful of Etruscan power. The Etruscans had occuped Rome itself from c. In the early 4th cent. Beginning with Veii c. In the wars of the 3d cent. Etruscan Culture Much of the actual work in Etruria was done by the native population, who were subject to, though probably not slaves of, their conquerors; the nobility of Etruscan birth formed an exclusive caste.

Women had an unusually high status compared to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Etruscan wealth and power were in part based upon their knowledge of ironworking and their exploitation of iron deposits that were abundant in Etruria.

  1. The Franks then withdrew but in 772 they invaded Italy again. The Pope appealed to the Franks for help.
  2. Next came Nero 54-68. The Pope recognized the kingdom of Italy for the first time and he accepted that Rome was now the capital of Italy.
  3. Despite the fact that some economic and social progress took place before World War I, Italy during that time was a dissatisfied and crisis-ridden nation.
  4. From the beginning Rome was an aggressive and expansionist state. Meanwhile, local insurrections weakened the Saracens' hold on the southern coastal cities, although the Arabs remained strong in Sicily.
  5. He ruled until 526 and under him Germans and Romans in Italy lived together peacefully.

Etruscan artwhich largely consisted of sculpture in clay and metal, fresco tomb paintings, and fine pottery, had some of its origins in Greek and Eastern arts and was extremely influential on the art of the Romans. Fond of music, games, and racing, the Etruscans introduced the chariot into Italy. They were also highly religious.

  • Nevertheless the Roman Empire survived for some time afterwards;
  • Under their general Narses the Byzantines took all of Italy again by 562;
  • Also in March 1848 Venice became an independent republic again.

Seeking to impose order on nature, they established strict laws to govern the relations between people and gods. Lacking the scientific rationalism of the Greeks, they tried to prolong the lives of the dead by decorating their tombs like houses.

While religion is perhaps the best-known aspect of Etruscan civilization, even it remains quite enigmatic.

  • The Germans then poured troops into Italy;
  • However he was persuaded not to;
  • Many people hoped the Pope would lead the Italians to independence and unity;
  • Yet the Americans had not signed the treaty of London and they refused to be bound by it.

The Etruscan language also presents difficulties to the scholar. It can be easily read the alphabet is of Greek extraction, and the sound value of the signs is knownbut, with the exception of only a few words, the vocabulary is not understood.

Although the language seems to contain both Indo-European and non-Indo-European elements as well as traces of ancient Mediterranean tongues, it cannot be classified into any known group of languages. Etruscan is known from some 10,000 epigraphic records dating from the 7th cent. BC to the 1st cent. AD; most are brief and repetitious dedications. One of the mysteries of Etruscan civilization is why the written record is so sparse and why the Romans wrote almost nothing about the Etruscan language or its literature.

Pallottino, The Etruscans tr. Their Art and Civilization 1976 ; M. Grant, The Etruscans 1981 ; E. A Cultural History 2000 ; M. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.